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SEPTEMBER 30, 1902 25 

Address by Hon. Thomas H. Carter 25 

Address by Hon. David R. Francis 30 

Reception by Louisiana Purchase Exposition Com- 
pany TO THE Board 33 

Election of First President and Other Officers 
of the Board October 1, 1902 33 

Resolution adopted by the Board Concerning 
"Pike" Features, October 1, 1902 34 

Resolution of National Commission Concerning 
Number of Members of the Board, October 2, 1902 34 

Appointment of Committees by the Board .... 35 


NOVEMBER 17, 1902 35 

Proposition in regard to a Building for the Board 35 


Election of Eighth Vice-President, November 19, 
1902 36 

Second Speech by President Carter, November 19, 
1902 36 

Resolutions presented by the Board to the Expo- 
sition Company through the National Commission, 
November 20, 1902 38 

Letter of President Carter acknowledging Re- 
ceipt OF Resolution, November 29, 1902 .... 40 


FEBRUARY 16, 1903 42 

Hall of Physics Building offered for Use of the 
Board and accepted February 16, 1903 .... 42 

Appropriation of $3000 for Incidental Expenses of 
THE Board, February 16, 1903 42 



AGERS, MARCH 11, 1903 44 

Conference of the National Commission and Com- 
mittees OF the Board, March 11, 1903 ..... 44 
Answer of President Carter at Conference ... 44 

AGERS, APRIL 28, 1903 47 

Announcement of the Death of Mrs. Washington 

A. Roebling 47 

Adoption of Rules and Regulations, April 28, 1903 47 

Dedication Exercises 51 

Resolution appointing Committee to ask for Ap- 
propriation FROM Congress, May 2, 1903 .... 63 
Appointment of Standing Committees, May 2, 1903 . 64 
Reception by Wednesday Club of St. Louis to 
the Board 54 



DECEMBER 15, 1903 55 

Letter of Resignation of Mes. James L. Blair read 
December 15, 1903, and Resolution op Regret 
adopted 55 

Second Address of President Francis to the Board, 
December 15, 1903 56 

Resolution adopted asking the National Commis- 
sion TO suspend Rule limiting Appointment on 
Board of Lady Managers, December 16, 1903 . . 59 

Replies op President Carter 60 

Election op Mrs. Daniel Manning as President op 
Board, December 16, 1903 61 

Meeting of the National Commission and the Board, 
and Speeches by Senators Carter, Lindsay, and 
Thurston, December 16, 1903 62 

Resignation op Mrs. Hanger as Secretary op Board 
AND Election of Miss Egan as Secretary, Decem- 
ber 17, 1903 72 

Reception by Woman's Club of St. Louis to the 
Board, December, 1903 72 

Appointment of New Legislative Committee, De- 
cember 18, 1903 73 


MARCH 1, 1904 74 

Resolution of Thanks to Legislative Committee, 
March 1, 1904 . 74 

Remarks op Hon. David R. Francis, March 2, 1904 75 

Letters op Notification op Transfer op Funds, 
March 5, 1904 80 

Extract prom Urgent Deficiency Bill appropriat- 
ing Funds to the Board 81 





TIONS . 118 

NISHING ... 123 


GERS, APRIL 28, 1904 134 

Opening Exercises of the Exposition 134 


JULY 14, 1904 135 

Resolution appropriating Fund to Day Nursery, 
Model Play-Ground, and Lost Children Conces- 
sion 135 

New Secretary appointed 135 

AGERS, SEPTEMBER 20, 1904 136 

Reconfirmation of Departmental Jurors .... 136 


Resolution in regard to Awards, April 29, 1903 . . 140 
Report from Chairman of Committee of Awards, 

March 1, 1904 141 

Special Rules and Regulations governing Awards 143 

Questions to Jurors appointed by the Board . . . 147 


Miss Anna Tolman Smith 150 

Miss Anna G. MacDougal 163 

Miss Mary Botce Temple 166 

Mes. E. H. Thateb 180 


Miss Hope Fairfax Loughbobough 181 

Miss Maky Solaki 185 

Mhs. Elizabeth St. John Matthews 193 

Miss Rose Weld 197 

Mhs. Eugene Field 199 

Miss Frances B. Johnston 200 

Mrs. Horace S. Smith 200 

Mrs. W. M. Woolwine 201 

Mrs. R. a. Edgerton 205 

Mrs. Isaac Boyd 206 

Mrs. F. K. Bowes 207 

Mrs. a. G. Harrow 219 

Mrs. E. D. Wood 220 

Mrs. Wiluam S. Major 222 

Miss Margaret Summers 223 

Mrs. W. H. Felton 226 

Mrs. E. L. Lamb 229 

Mrs. F. H. Pugh . 230 

Miss Carolyn Hempstead (now Mrs. C. M. F. Riley) 233 

Mrs. M. B. R. Day 236 

Miss Alice C. FLim^HEB 237 

Mrs. Alice Palmer Henderson 239 

Miss Cora Pbtehs 242 

Mrs. Zelia Nuttall 243 

Miss Caroline Gbeisbeimeb 244 

Miss Margaret Wade 255 

Miss Jane Addams 256 

Miss Mary E. Perry 258 

Mrs. E. p. Txhiner (succeeded by Mrs. Cond]6 Hamlin) .... 262 


Mrs. W. E. Fischel 264 

Mrs. H. a. Langford 266 

Miss Thekla M. Bernays 267 

Miss Edith J. Griswold 271 

Miss Hope Fairfax Loughborough 274 

Miss Rose Weld 275 

Mrs. Richard P. Bland 276 

Mrs. Ida L. Turner 278 

Mrs. J. M. Glenn 278 

Mrs. M. G. Schutchin 278 

Mrs. Mary Stuart Armstrong 282 

Mhs. Zeua Nuttall 282 

Miss Jane Addams 284 

Miss Clara Hellwig 285 



Mas. Philip N. Moobe 286 



Final Report of House Committee 307 

Ceeche Plans, and Final Report of Committee on 
Day Nursery Appropriation 311 

Final Report of Committee on Entertainment and 

Ceremonies 322 


Final Reports to Board, June 9, 1905 330 

Resolution of Thanks to the Louisiana Purchase 
Exposition Commission 331 

Resolution of Appreciation to the Louisiana Pub- 
chase Exposition Company 331 

Disbursements made by Exposition Company, on be- 
half OF Board of Lady Managers, prior to Special 
Appropriation fob the Board 332 

Amounts pledged by Exposition Company but not 
paid until after February 18, 1904 333 




L'ENVOI 339 







President of Board of Lady Managers 


President of Board of Lady Managers October 1, 
1902, TO October 21, 1903 


1st Vice-President of Board of Lady Managers 


2d Vice-President of Board of Lady Managers 


3d Vice-President of Board of Lady Managers 


4th Vice-President of Board of Lady Managers 


5th Vice-President of Board of Lady Managers 


6th Vice-President of Board of Lady Managers 


7th Vice-President of Board of Lady Managers 


Treasurer of Board of Lady Managers 


Chairman of Committee on Day Nursery Appropria- 
tion . . 



Chairman of Committee of Awards 


Chairman of Auditing Committee 


Chairman of Committee on Press 



Member of Committee on Woman's Work 


Member of Committee on Ceremonies 


Chairman of Committee on Woman's Work 

SALON (looking east) 194 


Member of Committee on Entertainment 


Member of Committee on Entertainment 


Member of Commiti^ee on Entertainment 


Member of Committee on Foreign Relations 


Member of Committee on Press 










New York, N. Y., June 10, 1905. 


I have the honor to transmit herewith the report of 
the Board of Lady Managers of the Louisiana Purchase 
Exposition, which was appointed by you as provided 
for by the Act of Congress dated March 3, 1901. 

Very respectfully. 

Mart Margaretta Manning, 

President of the Board of Lady Managers, 

Louisiana Purchase Exposition. 


The territory originally known as Louisiana was taken 
possession of by the explorer La Salle in 1682, in the 
name of Louis XIV, and the first colony was founded 
by the French at Biloxi in 1699. The vast domain was 
transferred to Spain, by secret treaty, in 1763, and re- 
mained in the possession of that country until 1800, 
when the King of Spain, desiring the assistance of Na- 
poleon in the erection of the kingdom of Etruria for his 
son-in-law, the Duke of Parma, ceded the Louisiana 
Territory to France in return for that aid. It was part 
of Bonaparte's policy and earliest ambition to restore 
to France all her lost possessions, and by the significant 
treaty of San Ildefonso, signed by Manuel Godoy, the 
Spanish Minister of State (known as the "Prince of 
Peace"), and Marshal Berthier, Minister of France at 
Madrid, all that vast and vaguely defined territory 
known as Louisiana which France had originally trans- 
ferred to Spain, was reconveyed to France. 

Up to the end of the Revolution the possession of the 
Louisiana Territory by one foreign power or another 
had not touched Americans closely, but now condi- 
tions changed. When rumors of the last treaty finally 
reached the United States the planters in the Missis- 
sippi Valley became alarmed. The laws and customs 
regulations of the Spaniards at New Orleans were 
arbitrary, their business methods antiquated, compli- 
cated and irksome to the colonists; friction had al- 
ready existed between them, the Spaniards being aided 
by Indians hostile to the frontiersmen. The right of 


deposit was essential to the pioneers, who journeyed 
down the river in their flat-bottomed home-made boats, 
— they required a place to store their goods at New 
Orleans while waiting the arrival of trading vessels. In 
the early nineties the Spanish authorities closed navi- 
gation and refused the right of way to the ocean, but 
in 1795 a treaty was signed which gave the right of 
deposit, with certain minor limitations, for three years, 
and the way to a market was kept open for that period, 
and thereafter until 1802; that year the Spaniards 
again withdrew the privilege, and therein lay a potent 
motive for the acquisition of at least the mouth of the 
Mississippi River, and although the immediate demand 
of these early American settlers was simply an open 
seaport and waterway to the sea, the Louisiana Pur- 
chase was the direct outcome of our strained relations 
with Spain. 

A resolution was offered in Congress, authorizing 
the President to call out 50,000 militia and take pos- 
session of New Orleans, but the United States sought 
security without force of arms, — and a substitute 
resolution was adopted appropriating $2,000,000 for 
the purchase of the Floridas and New Orleans, — the 
Floridas being at first the entire cession contemplated, 
even without the Island of New Orleans. 

Chancellor Robert R. Livingston, of New York, had 
been appointed as our Minister to France at a time 
when the affairs of that country were in a somewhat 
precarious condition. Napoleon, then only thirty-four 
years old, was Dictator, surrounded by enemies. Presi- 
dent Jefferson wrote Livingston to make the best terms 
he could with Napoleon, either for the mouth of the 


river, site for a city, or place for deposit. He at no time 
spoke of acquiring the whole tract. Livingston, with 
great tact and judgment, kept the matter before Na- 
poleon, realizing not only the importance of the small 
tract originally involved, but the incalculable advan- 
tage that would be derived by the United States could 
the accession of the whole territory be accomplished. 
He was, therefore, greatly surprised by a question from 
Talleyrand, in which he was asked, "What we would 
give for the whole tract .^" This was followed by a pro- 
position from Napoleon's representative, Marbois, the 
State Treasurer, in which he offered to sell all the Louis- 
iana Territory to the United States for 100,000,000 
francs ($20,000,000), with a provision that the United 
States should pay the claims of American citizens against 
France for depredations by French privateers, which 
amounted to 20,000,000 francs ($4,000,000). This offer 
Livingston declined, and Marbois asked him to name 
a price. Livingston, after a polite and politic disavowal 
of any anxiety to seek a larger expansion of territory, 
cautiously remarked, "We would be ready to purchase, 
provided the sum was reduced to reasonable limits," 
but refused to make an offer, postponing the matter 
until the arrival of Monroe, who, he was informed by 
the United States Government, had been appointed 
Minister with special powers to negotiate this pur- 
chase of New Orleans. 

Talleyrand told Livingston that if they gave New 
Orleans, the rest would be of little value, and Marbois 
dropped his price to 80,000,000 francs ($16,000,000) 
and the claims, and later said if we would name 60,- 
000,000 francs and take upon us the American claims 


to the amount of 20,000,000 francs more, he would 
submit the offer to Bonaparte. Our Minister declared 
that sum was greatly beyond our means, and wished 
Bonaparte reminded that the whole region was liable 
to become the property of England. The Minister of 
the Public Treasury admitted the weight of this pos- 
sibility, but said, "Try if you cannot come up to my 
mark. Consider the extent of the country, the ex- 
clusive navigation of the river, and the importance of 
having no neighbors to disrupt you, no war to dread." 

The American Minister was not long in deciding to 
accept Napoleon's proposition for the United States to 
acquire the whole territory, but still waited to conclude 
negotiations until the arrival in Paris of Monroe. 

The Great Treaty was, in its essential elements, the 
work of three days. On April 11, Talleyrand asked 
Livingston, "Whether he wished to have the whole of 
Louisiana.^" On April 12, Monroe arrived, but was 
too ill to attend a conference. Livingston again saw 
Talleyrand, and on April 13, two conferences took place 
between Marbois and Livingston, lasting several hours 
and ending at midnight, in which both negotiators 
agreed upon a treaty of transfer and acquisition, leav- 
ing open the amount to be paid. Upon this point they 
did not widely differ. Livingston's memorable mid- 
night dispatch dated Paris, April 13, 1803, and finished 
at three o'clock in the morning, gives the authentic 
official history of the Louisiana Purchase treaty. The 
Livingston letters tell that the decision to sell Louisiana 
was reached on Sunday, April 10, after Napoleon had 
had a prolonged conference with Talleyrand, Marbois, 
and others. The idea of selling originated in the active 




brain of Napoleon. It was opposed by Talleyrand, 
Berthier, and others, but Napoleon contemplated war 
with England, and needed funds. The Louisiana Pur- 
chase tract was so far away, and would require so much 
money and so many men to protect it, that in his esti- 
mation it was probably better to dispose of it at a good 
price rather than hold ; and he feared in the event of war, 
which was imminent, he would lose the colony of Louis- 
iana within sixty days after he took possession. The 
Treaty of Amiens was at an end ; Austria was threaten- 
ing; a British fleet was in the West Indies, he was dis- 
gusted at the disastrous compaign in San Domingo, 
angry with Spain, and desired to be free for new cam- 
paigns in Europe. The First Consul, impressed by our 
Minister's social rank in his own country, no less than 
by his merciless logic and solid understanding, had 
given his promise that debts due for the spoliation of 
our commerce should be paid. This promise, of which 
he was again reminded, could only be kept by realizing 
on sale of public lands, as he had no other resource. 
Small wonder that he wished to be rid of the whole irri- 
tating subject of Louisiana. 

Monroe on his arrival in Paris found that the nego- 
tiations for the purchase were already far advanced 
by Minister Livingston. Owing to the illness of the 
special envoy he was not presented to the First Consul 
until May 1, and hence, as a negotiator, had nothing 
oflBcially to do with the treaty, which was virtually 
negotiated April 13, and finally concluded April 30. On 
that day the treaty was signed in the presence of Na- 
poleon by Marbois and the two American represent- 
atives, and when the negotiations were completed, 


Napoleon made the following prophecy: "This acces- 
sion of territory strengthens forever the power of the 
United States. I have given England a rival." 

The agreement, in the form of a treaty, reached Wash- 
ington July 14 for ratification. Congress was called in 
special session October 17; the treaty was confirmed 
by the Senate after two days of discussion; a resolution 
was passed that it should take effect immediately, but 
only after much opposition. Many persons were strongly 
opposed to the Purchase, condemned the acquisition 
of a wilderness, and expressed their belief that the terri- 
tory was not worth the price to be paid, and that its 
control would be diflScult and unprofitable. 

The exact cost ultimately agreed upon was 64,000,000 
francs in the form of United States 6 per cent, bonds, 
representing a capital of $11,250,000. In addition to 
this the American Government agreed to assume and 
pay the obligations of France to American citizens for 
French attacks upon American shipping. These were 
estimated at 20,000,000 francs, or $3,750,000, making 
the total payment $15,000,000. The tract comprised 
554,000,000 acres. Napoleon sold the territory for two 
cents an acre, or ten acres for one franc. When the 
negotiations were pending, Marbois expressed to Napo- 
leon the difliculty of reaching a definite conclusion as 
to boundary. When Talleyrand was questioned as to 
boundaries he returned evasive answers, and said he did 
not know, and when pressed to be more explicit said, 
"You must take it as we received it." "But what 
did you mean to take.?" asked Livingston. "I do not 
know," replied Talleyrand. "Then you mean that we 
shall construe it our own way.'*" said Livingston again; 

' ^Mi.- 



to which Talleyrand made final reply, "I can give you 
no direction. You have made a noble bargain for your- 
selves, and I suppose you will make the most of it." 

When we consider that Jefferson at one time was 
willing to give $2,000,000 for New Orleans alone, we 
can marvel that so vast an empire as the whole province 
should come to us for the price paid. We can afford to 
overlook any defects in the treaty details and forever 
hold in gratitude the illustrious men who, by their 
diplomatic skill, their earnestness of purpose, and well 
directed efforts, achieved one of the greatest triumphs 
in the world's history. It well justified the assertion of 
Minister Livingston, who, after placing his name to the 
treaty of cession, and rising and shaking hands with 
Monroe and Marbois, said, "We have lived long; but 
this is the noblest work of our lives." 

The Louisiana Purchase Exposition was held to com- 
memorate this most important event in the history of 
America, the purchase from France of the vast Louis- 
iana Territory, — an event second only in importance 
to the signing of the Declaration of Independence, — 
which constituted the first great advance of the United 
States toward national expansion, and at the same time 
insured to them the control forever of the greatest nat- 
ural waterway on earth, the Mississippi River. 

The Missouri Historical Society was the first organi- 
zation to take formal steps toward the celebration of the 
one hundredth anniversary of the acquisition of this 
territory. In acknowledgment of the public sentiment 
expressed. Governor Stevens, of Missouri, called a 
convention of delegates to be appointed by the respect- 


ive governors of the twelve states and two territories 
that had been created in the Louisiana Purchase. 
Ninety-three delegates attended the meeting on Jan- 
uary 10, 1899, and unanimously voted that an Inter- 
national Exposition should be held in St. Louis as a 
means of giving expression, by practical demonstration, 
to the universal appreciation of what had been accom- 
plished within this vast region during the century. 

An Executive Committee was appointed, of which 
Hon. David R. Francis, of St. Louis, was made chair- 
man. The aid of the United States Government was 
sought, and, after preliminary work on the part of the 
members of the Committee in raising the $10,000,000 
which Congress had made a condition should be secured 
before rendering material assistance, a bill was passed 
March 3, 1901, appropriating $5,000,000 toward 
"celebrating the one hundredth anniversary of the 
Louisiana Purchase Territory by the United States, by 
holding an international exhibition of arts, industries, 
manufactures, and the products of the soil, mine, forest 
and sea, in the city of St. Louis, in the State of Missouri." 

This enormous tract of land that for a century had been 
steadily contributing to the material advancement of 
the world, was now to show that it was ready and able 
to assume its full share not only in practical life and 
progress, but in the deeper phases of science and art, 
and to demonstrate the nature of its resources by par- 
ticipation in the greatest universal exposition ever held. 
By this Exposition it was not only above all else to 
illustrate the marvelous development of the territory 
whose acquisition it was meant to celebrate, but it was 
likewise "to provide for a comparative display of the 


products, natural and artificial, of the nations of the 
world, to be arranged in classified groups, the exhibits 
of each nation in every class to be set down by the side 
of those of all other nations, thereby better to insure 
comparison and an intelligent verdict as to merit by the 
direct and practical contrast thus secured." It was to 
demonstrate the feasible combination of the artistic 
with the useful, the beautiful with the enduring, the 
graceful with the strong. 

The three most significant dates historically con- 
nected with the acquisition of the magnificent domain 
known as Louisiana, are April 30, 1803, when the Great 
Treaty was signed; October 19, when the treaty was 
ratified in the Senate of the United States by a vote 
of 24 to 7; and December 20, of the same year, when 
our Government received formal possession at New 
Orleans from the French prefect Laussat. The Council 
Chamber of the Cabildo (which building was so faith- 
fully reproduced at the Exposition) and the balcony 
adjacent, were the scene of the formal retrocession of 
Louisiana from Spain to France, and also of the event 
so much more momentous to us, the ceremony in which 
France delivered Louisiana into the keeping of the 
United States. 

On August 20, 1901, by a proclamation of the Pre- 
sident, "in the name of the Government and of the 
people of the United States, ... all the nations of the 
earth" were invited "to take part in the commemoration 
of the purchase of the Louisiana Territory, an event of 
great interest to the United States and of abiding effect 
on their development, by appointing representatives 
and sending such exhibits to the Louisiana Purchase 


Exposition as would most fitly and fully illustrate their 
resources, their industries, and their progress in civil- 
ization." This invitation was sent through the Depart- 
ment of State of the United States to the chief magis- 
trates of all civilized governments, from nearly all of 
whom official acceptances were received in reply. 

It has become a matter of history that ground was 
broken for the site of the Louisiana Purchase Expo- 
sition December 20, 1901, that day being the anniver- 
sary of the one on which the jurisdiction over the Louis- 
iana Territory passed from France to the United States 
in 1803. The dedication exercises were held on the 
afternoon of April 30, 1903, and were designed to com- 
memorate not only the one hundredth anniversary of 
the signing of the treaty by Livingston, Monroe, and 
Marbois, transferring the territory from France to the 
United States, but also to dedicate in a formal manner 
the grounds and palaces of the Exposition then rapidly 
advancing toward completion, though not to be opened 
before the following spring. 

The exercises were participated in by representatives 
from nearly all civilized nations, and the presence on 
April 30, 1903, of the President of the United States, 
ex-President Cleveland, the Joint Committee of Con- 
gress, the ambassadors and ministers of twenty-six 
foreign governments, the governors and representatives 
of more than forty states and territories, conferred 
upon it the official indorsement of the nations of the 
world, and added the weight and dignity which the 
sanction of governments alone could give. 

When the treaty of cession was concluded in 1803, 
President Jefferson represented less than 6,000,000 


people, and there were but 50,000 white settlers in 
the Louisiana Territory. President Roosevelt in 1903 
represented 80,000,000 people, the Purchase contained 
15,000,000 inhabitants, and the 865,000 square miles 
which it comprised had been geographically divided 
into twelve states and two territories; it was an area 
greater in extent and in natural resources than that of 
the original thirteen states, and constituted the largest 
real estate transfer ever known in the history of nations. 
The price of $15,000,000 paid for it was considered 
exorbitant by those who were opposed to the purchase 
in 1803, yet the possibilities of the country, then so 
vague and ill-defined, so amply justified the prophetic 
faith of its advocates, that a century later many millions 
of dollars in excess of the purchase money were spent 
in commemorating the transfer of a tract of land with- 
out which the present greatness of the United States 
would not have been possible; the present value of the 
agricultural products alone of the area for one year are 
a hundred times, and the taxable wealth more than 
four hundred times, the purchase money. 


The Board of Lady Managers was appointed pursuant 
to a clause in Section 6 of the Act of Congress of March 3, 
1901, empowering the National Commission of the 
Louisiana Purchase Exposition/ as follows : — 

"And said commission is hereby authorized to ap- 
point a board of lady managers, of such number and 
to perform such duties as may be prescribed by said 
commission, subject, however, to the approval of said 
company. Said board of lady managers may, in the 
discretion of said commission and corporation, appoint 
one member of all committees authorized to award 
prizes for such exhibits as may have been produced in 
whole or in part by female labor." 

^ The Louisiana Purchase Exposition Commission was authorized 
by Act of Congress, March 3, 1901, and the members were appointed by 
President McKinley. According to Sec. 12 of an Act approved June 28, 
1902, the Commission will cease officially to exist on the first day of July, 
1905, at which time, also, will expire the term of appointment of the 
members of the Board of Lady Managers. 


(^From December 16, 1903, to July 1, 1905) 


The following is the complete list and order of appoint- 
ment of the members of the Board of Lady Managers 
made by the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Commis- 
sion, acting under the authority conferred by the afore- 
said Section 6, of the Act of Congress of March 3, 
1901: — 

OCTOBER 16, 1901 Appointed by 

Miss Helen M. Gould Hon. Philip D. Scott 

OCTOBER 18, 1901 

Mrs. John A. McCall Hon. Martin H. Glynn 

Mrs. John M. Holcombe Hmi. Frederick A. Betls 

Miss Anna L. Dawes Hon. Frederick A. Betts 

Mrs. Frederick Hanger Hon. Philip D. Scott 

Mrs. Fannie L. Porter Hon. Philip D. Scott 

Mrs. James L. Blair Hem. John M. Allen 

Mrs. William E. Andrews Hon. John M. Thurston 

Mrs. Helen Boice-Hitnsicker Hon. John M. Thurston 

NOVEMBER 19, 1901 
Mrs. Richard W. Knott Hon. William Lindsay 

Mrs. Washington A. Roebling Hon. William Lindsay 

Mrs. M. H. de Young Hon. Thomas H. Carter 

Mrs. Belle L. Everest Hon. John F. Miller 

NOVEMBER 20, 1901 
Mrs. Marcus P. Daly Hon. Thomas H. Carter 


NOVEMBER 21, 1901 Appmnted by 

Mrs. William H. Coleman Hon. John F. Miller 

Mrs. Edward L. Buchw alter Hon. John F. Miller 

Mrs. Lewis D. Frost Hon. John M. Thurston 

NOVEMBER 22, 1901 
Mrs. Finis P. Ernest Hon. George W. McBride 

JANUARY 22, 1902 
Mrs. James B. Montgomery Hon. George W. McBride 

SEPTEMBER 30, 1902 
Mrs. John Miller Horton Hon. Martin H. Glynn 

OCTOBER 2, 1902 
Mrs. Daniel Manning Hon. Martin H. Glynn 

Mrs. Carl von Mayhoff Hon. Martin H. Glynn 

Mrs. James Edmund Sullivan Hon. Thomas H. Carter 

OCTOBER 3, 1902 
Mrs. Annie McLean Moores Hon. John M. Allen 

NOVEMBER 29, 1902 
Miss Lavinia H. Egan Hon. John M. Allen 


Mrs. Daniel Manning Albany, N. Y. 

Mrs. Edward L. Buchwalter Springfield, Ohio 

Mrs. Finis P. Ernest Denver, Colo. 

Mrs. Helen Boice-Hunsicker Philadelphia, Pa. 

Miss Anna L. Dawes Pittsfield, Mass. 

Mrs. Belle L. Everest Atchison, Kan. 

Mrs. M. H. de Young San Francisco, Cal. 

Mrs. Fannie L. Porter Atlanta, Ga. 

Mrs. William H. Coleman Indianapolis, Ind. 

Miss Helen M. Gould New York, N. Y. 

Mrs. Richard W. Knott Louisville, Ky. 

Mrs. John M. Holcombe Hartford, Conn. 

Mrs. Frederick Hanger Little Rock, Ark. 

Mrs. James Edmund Sullivan Providence, R. I. 



Mrs. Margaret P. Daly 

Mrs. Mary Phelps Montgomery 

Mrs. Carl von Mayhoff 

Mrs. John Miller Horton 

Mrs. Lewis D. Frost 

Mrs. W. E. Andrews 

Mrs. Annie McLean Moores 

Miss Lavinla H. Egan 

Anaconda, Mont. 

Portland, Ore. 

New York, N. Y. 

Buffalo, N. Y. 

Winona, Minn. 

Washington, D. C. 

Mt. Pleasant, Texas 

Shreveport, La. 

Hostess of the Building of the Board of Lady Managers 
Miss Jull\ T. E. McBlair Washington, D. C. 



Mrs. Manning, Chairman 
Mrs. Holcombe Mrs. Coleman Mrs. Knott 

Miss Egan Mrs. Buchwalter Mrs. Hanger 

Mrs. Montgomert Mrs. Moores Miss Gould 

Miss Dawes 


Mrs. Manning, Chairman 
Mrs. Porter Mrs. Ernest Mrs. von Mayhofp 

Mrs. Everest Mrs. de Young Mrs. Hunsicker 

Mrs. Sullivan Mrs. Horton 

Mrs. Knott 
Miss Gould 


Miss Dawes, Chairman 
Mrs. Holcombe Mrs. Montgomery 

Mrs. von Mathoff Mrs. Moores 

Mrs. Hanger 


Mrs. Buchwalter, Chairman 

Mrs. Andrews 

Mrs. Hanger 


Mrs. Knott, Chairman 

Miss Egan 

Mrs. Moores 

Mrs. Montgomery, Chairman 
Mrs. Holcombe Miss Gould Miss Dawes 

Mrs. Daly Mrs. Buchwalter Mrs. de Young 



Mrs. Buchwalter, Chainnan 
Mrs. Montgomery Mrs. Coleman 


Mrs. Hanger, Chairman 
Mrs. Knott Miss Egan Mrs. Hunsicker 

Mrs. Porter 


Mrs. Andrews, Chairman 
Mrs. Ernest Mrs. Montgomery 



Mrs. Horton, Chairman 
Mrs. Buchwalter Mrs. Knott 


Miss Gould, Chairman 
Mrs. Holcombe Mrs. Andrews Mrs. Hunsicker 

Miss Gould, Chairman 
Mrs. Everest Mrs. Andrews Mrs. Sullivan 


Mrs. Ernest, Chairman 

Resident members of Board, and members of Rotating Committee 

on duty. 


Mrs. Holcombe, Chainnan 
Mrs. Hanger Miss Gould 


Mrs. Hanger, Chairman 
Mrs. Ernest Miss Dawes 

Mrs. Manning, Chairman 
Mrs. Holcombe Mrs. Montgomery 


The St. Louis Exposition afforded an opportunity of 
demonstrating to other nations the progress that the 
United States had made in every branch of manufacture, 
agriculture, and art. The enormous field that existed 
from which to draw the great variety of material war- 
ranted the assumption that a wonderful display would 
be made. The sponsorship of our Government, and its 
invitation to other nations to participate, vested in the 
citizens of the United States, not only as a nation but 
as individuals, the responsibility of acceptably placing 
before the eyes of the world the achievements and 
advancement not only of their own, but of all civilized 
and semi-civilized nations. 

The importance of the event rendered it a fitting 
occasion for women again to exhibit to the world the 
record of their increasing development and progress. 
At the Centennial in Philadelphia the Women's Com- 
mission brought together the exhibits shown in the 
Woman's Department, raised funds necessary to build 
the Woman's Pavilion, suggested the Department of Pub- 
lic Comfort, and originated and carried to completion 
other useful and practical ideas. The Board of Lady 
Managers at the World's Columbian Exposition achieved 
a most wonderful success; at the Cotton Centennial in 
New Orleans the women from each state and terri- 
tory did excellent work, as did those at Atlanta, Nash- 
ville, Omaha, and Buffalo. All this had thoroughly 
prepared the public mind for the cooperation of women 
in further exposition work. 


The Board of Lady Managers of the Louisiana Pur- 
chase Exposition was, therefore, created as an oflficial 
organization acting under the authority given it by the 
government. Its most important duty — that of ap- 
pointing women jurors — was prescribed by Congress, 
and all others were secondary to it. The members 
realized the responsibility which rested upon them. 
They wished to demonstrate that women's attainments 
and achievements are a factor of sufficient importance 
to warrant their participation in an exhibition of such 
magnitude; and to prove that the rapid advancement 
and increased usefulness of women, made possible by 
the educational and other advantages accorded them, 
rendered their work worthy of the examination and 
attention of the world. 


Preparatory to accepting any responsibilities, the 
members of the Board of Lady Managers requested 
the National Commission to define the full powers of 
their appointment. Careful inquiry was made as to the 
duties to be assigned to the Board and what special and 
important work it would be expected to perform. 

Pursuant to this request, an informal meeting of the 
eighteen members who had been appointed in the fall 
of 1901, was called by the National Commission, in the 
city of New York, for December 5, of that year. Hon. 
Thomas H. Carter, President of the National Commis- 
sion, in an address on that occasion, outlined their 
duties to a limited extent, and stated that a meeting 
would be called in March, 1902, for the purpose of per- 
fecting their organization and determining the nature 
of their work. This meeting was not called, as had 
been contemplated, however, and it was not until Sep- 
tember 30, 1902, that the members of the Board were 
again assembled pursuant to a call of the Commission, 
the meeting- place being in the city of St. Louis. 

After formal organization of the Board of Lady 
Managers, they were again addressed by Hon. Thomas 
H. Carter, who said, in part, as follows : — 

The act of Congress left the number of Lady Mana- 
gers optional with the National Commissioners. 

Before the exercise of the discretion allowed by Con- 
gress numerous persons suggested a great variety of 


ways, whereby the ladies of the country, and the world, 
if you please, might, with force and propriety, partici- 
pate in this coming Exposition. The agency of organized 
clubs was, for a time, suggested as a proper method by 
which the assistance of womankind might be interjected 
into this great work, but many diflSculties appeared in an 
effort to crystallize that thought in the proper shape. 

Owing to the confusion existing during the sessions 
of Congress, the necessity as well as the desirability of 
allowing the National Commission to appoint a Board 
of Lady Managers, became from day to day more ap- 
parent, and, therefore, in pursuance of that authority, 
it was determined, with the consent and approval of the 
Local Company, under whose auspices the Exposition 
was given, to appoint a Board consisting of twenty-one 
persons, and, of the twenty-one, nineteen members 
have now been appointed. ... It will rest with you 
ladies, and the two additional members hereafter to be 
appointed, whether or not you wish to increase the size 
of your Board. . . . 

After, or about the time of the New York meeting, 
the National Commission, acting under the authority 
of the law, prescribed certain general limitations or 
rules within which this Board of Lady Managers would 
continue to exercise their functions. These rules were, 
I think, made very general, and were submitted to the 
Local Company for approval, as the statute requires. 
The Company has suggested certain amendments, 
which are not of great importance and do not at this 
time limit your deliberations to any considerable ex- 
tent. . . . The rule upon which your authority will 
rest reads: " The Board of Lady Managers, appointed 


as authorized by Section Six of the Act of Congress, 
shall have authority to exercise general supervisory 
control over such features of the Exposition as may be 
specially devoted to woman's work." That rule is prac- 
tically without any limitation whatever. It places under 
your control and supervision the work for the exhibits, 
whether appearing in the manner of artistic, industrial, 
or other tangible production, or whether appearing in 
the manner of woman's engagement in any part or por- 
tion of the Exposition work. I think it will rest with 
you that girls under a certain age should not be per- 
mitted to be employed in the exhibits, or in any manner 
made a part of the coming Exposition. . . . You will 
find in this rule the amplest authority with reference 
to any subject-matter over which you seek to exercise 
jurisdiction, composed in whole or in part by woman's 
work. That is all the limitation you will find. That 
rule the Company has approved without amendment, 
and in approving it . . . I believe that it is clearly 
the earnest desire of the Company to secure and at all 
times approve of your cordial cooperation. 

In the matter of executing the duties before you, it 
will be found necessary, I believe, at this meeting, after 
the election of your oflScers, to secure such quarters as 
may, in your opinion, be necessary for the convenient 
transaction of the business committed to your charge. 
It will likewise be necessary for you to begin to consider 
the scope of woman's work, in connection with the 
Exposition, and likewise form proper rules and regula- 
tions for the government of your officers, and the direc- 
tion of the general task that you have before you. It is 
needless to suggest that future success will, as you know, 


to a considerable extent be dependent upon the thought 
and consideration given to your rules to start with. 
One feature of the rules heretofore commented upon 
to some extent, and perhaps both by the Commission 
and the Company, has been subject to criticism. That 
is the limitation upon the incurring expense. It has been 
suggested that the Board of Lady Managers at Chicago, 
which consisted of over one hundred persons, spent 
$150,000 or thereabouts. They were limited, I think, 
and spent the limit. Your expenses are not limited 
except by a rule adopted by prudence, and applicable 
to all bodies having money to expend from the United 
States Government. The purpose of this rule, let me 
say to you, ladies, was to preserve ordinary system in 
the transaction of the business that must be dispatched 
very rapidly, and must be dispatched under a sys- 

The observations I have here made seem to about 
cover, for the present, at least, the matters that will 
come up before you for consideration : — 

First : The scope of your work, unlimited by this 
Commission, save in the particulars prescribed in the 
law, to that which is in whole or in part made up of 
woman's work. 

Second : After determining the scope, the field 
within which you will act, and the rules that govern 
your officers, you will be called upon to determine other 
questions from time to time : the matter of investment, 
the matter of a special building, which shall be the 
ladies' home, and such other questions as may seem to 
you to be meet and proper. 

I am quite sure that throughout this space of time, 


two or three years, during which we are working together, 
you will find it quite easy to get along with this Com- 
mission. . . . Let me make this suggestion here, and 
one based upon an experience this Commission has 
had : You will find, as far as our observation has been 
extended, that you have here in the city of St. Louis, 
and the surrounding country, a body of earnest people, 
charged with a mighty work, the disbursement of the 
largest sum of money ever collected on the globe for 
an Exposition of any kind, larger than Chicago, Buffalo, 
and Charleston combined, and the one overwhelming, 
all-absorbing thought uppermost in the mind is to make 
of this Exposition a success, commensurate with the 
mighty means placed at the disposal of the Company, 
the Commission, and the Board. The weather will be 
hot and diflSiculties will come, tempers will become dis- 
turbed and patience sorely tried, but throughout it all, 
bear in mind that the man who is somewhat irritating 
has simply too much vim and enthusiasm for the 

President Francis, the General Counsel, the Treas- 
urer, are all devoting practically their entire time and 
attention to this work, and the things already accom- 
plished indicate that their efforts have been well directed 
and their work well performed. It is for you to say, you 
to determine in a general way, and upon your good 
judgment and earnest efforts will largely depend the 
extent to which women in this country and of the world 
at large are to participate, directly or indirectly, in 
making this Exposition the most beneficent for women 
that has or can be made in any age or ages. 


At the close of Senator Carter's remarks, President 
Francis of the Exposition Company said : — 

I have only come to say, ladies, that if we can be of 
any assistance to you we shall be more than glad to ren- 
der that assistance. If you have any suggestions to make 
us, we shall be pleased to receive them and consider 
them by prejudging them in your favor. I do not know 
what your plans are, but I wish to say, that if you de- 
sire permanent quarters, we will be very glad to provide 
them in the Administration Building. That might be 
a little inconvenient, perhaps, but we have all of our 
own offices there, and have all the accommodations one 
can require. I do not know whether you propose to have 
a permanent Secretary and establish headquarters here 
or not. I take it for granted that you are familiar with 
the provisions of the law. Of course, you know that the 
Board is nominated by the National Commission, of 
which Senator Carter is President. All of the nomina- 
tions that have been made by the National Commission 
have been confirmed. I believe the membership of your 
Board is limited to twenty-one. I have heard of the 
organization of that body. I wish to say, that we think 
we have made adequate if not liberal provision for the 
expense of the Board in this way: We have decided to 
tender you ladies, subject, of course, to your own amend- 
ment, after first acknowledging your generosity, — we 
have decided to say to you that we will allow you five cents 
per mile mileage from your homes to St. Louis, and five 
cents per mile back to your homes, or to your New York 
meetings, and in addition to that $6 per day for sub- 
sistence during the time you are in attendance at such 


meetings. If you do not think that suflBcient, we are 
open to suggestions from you. 

During your stay in cities where meetings will be 
held, you are allowed $6 per day subsistence, whether 
you choose to expend that or not ; if you do not think 
$6 per day suflBcient, make a suggestion accordingly. 

In regard to your duties, the law prescribed those. 
I suppose the report which was made by the Commis- 
sion to the Local Company and approved by the Local 
Company, has been forwarded to the Board. You know 
that you have the right to appoint one member to every 
Jury of Awards that passes upon work, wholly or partly 
made by women. I do not know what provision the law 
makes, if any, for your duties, but this Exposition, 
comprehensive as its scope may be, cannot be a success 
without the hearty cooperation of the ladies, and that 
is what we wish. 

I do not know what plans you have about a Wo- 
man's Building. I wish to say, that any suggestions you 
have to make us, we will take under serious considera- 
tion. A great deal has been said about permanent struc- 
tures. We have no objections to permanent structures, 
we rather court them, provided always some means are 
furnished for the maintenance of those buildings after 
the Exposition is over. There is another condition 
that must be observed, and that is in regard to the per- 
mission of the city for these buildings to remain. You, 
of course, understand that the Exposition proper does 
not own any of the ground within the site. We have 
1200 acres, which is much larger than any Exposition 
ever held, about 688 acres being the property of the city. 
About 112 acres of the site is the property of the Wash- 


ington University, for which we pay them a specific 
rental; that makes a total of 780 acres. In addition to 
that we have 410 acres which we have leased from pri- 
vate owners. That property must be returned to them 
free of all incumbrances. Therefore, if a permanent 
structure be contemplated, it must be erected on city 

Ladies, I will be very glad to answer any questions 
you may desire to ask in connection with the Exposi- 
tion, and, as I said, any suggestions of yours I shall 
submit to our Local Company, Executive Committee, 
and Board of Directors, and Senator Carter will sub- 
mit the same, I have no doubt, to the National Com- 

At a meeting of the Commission held the same day, 
(September 30), the resignation of Mrs. John A. McCall 
from the Board of Lady Managers was read and ac- 
cepted by the Commission. 

The statements of Senator Carter, as well as those 
of President Francis, stimulated the interest of the mem- 
bers of the Board; they comprehended anew that it 
involved not only a heavy responsibility, but constituted 
a national trust, to represent the women who to-day 
stand upon the advanced but firm ground secured by 
them in their long struggle to obtain intellectual advan- 
tages and recognition. By reason of the sacrifices and 
endurance of the pioneers, every opportunity is now 
afforded to women not only to acquire any trade or 
profession, but also to practice it without hindrance; 
in many cases the same money value is placed upon their 
labor as upon that of men for similar work, and no 



(Fi-oiii October 1, 1902, to October 21, 1903) 



longer is the line of demarcation rigidly drawn between 
the woman of leisure and the self-supporting woman. 
It, therefore, devolved upon the members of the Board 
of Lady Managers to advance, to the best of their ability, 
the conditions under which women might continue to 
maintain their social, intellectual, and financial inde- 

At this first formal meeting of the Board of Lady 
Managers held in St. Louis, the President and Board 
of Directors of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Com- 
pany tendered to the members a most delightful evening 
reception at the Southern Hotel. This was the first 
oflBcial entertainment given to the Board of Lady Man- 

On Wednesday, October 1, 1902, the election of the 
following oflBcers was effected : — 

Mrs. James L. Blair, President 

Mrs. Edward L. Buchwalter, 1st Vice-President 

Mrs. Finis P. Ernest, 2d Vice-President 

Mrs. Helen Boice-Hunsicker, 3d Vice-President 

Miss Anna L. Dawes, 4th Vice-President 

Mrs. Belle L. Everest, 5th Vice-President 

Mrs. M. H. de Young, 6th Vice-President 

Mrs. Fannie L. Porter, 7th Vice-President 
Mrs. Frederick Hanger, Secretary 

Mrs. William H. Coleman, Treasurer 

Miss Helen M. Gould then offered the following 
resolution : — 


Resolved, — That it is the earnest desire of the 
Board of Lady Managers of the Louisiana Purchase 
Exposition, that there be no indecent dances or improper 
exhibits in the Midway during the Exposition; and 
that the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company be 
urged to use the utmost care in awarding the conces- 
sions for shows, in order that there may be no objec- 
tionable features. 

The motion was carried unanimously, and its obser- 
vance by the Local Company was largely instrumental 
in lowering to a minimum the number of objectionable 
features on the "Pike." 

In a joint conference of the National Commission 
and President Francis, the latter consented that the 
Commission should make the number of Lady Mana- 
gers twenty-four instead of twenty-one, and on October 
2, 1902, the following resolution was offered by the 
First Vice-President, Mr. Glynn, and adopted by the 
Commission : — 

Resolved, — That the Board of Lady Managers 
of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition shall consist of 
twenty-four persons, including those heretofore ap- 
pointed, together with Mrs. Daniel Manning, of Wash- 
ington, D. C, Mrs. A. L. von Mayhoff, of Monticello, 
Va., and Mrs. Josephine Sullivan, of Providence, R. I., 
also the two additional members to be nominated by 
Mr. Allen. 

Be it further Resolved, — That the appoint- 
ments thus made now fix the membership of the Board 
at twenty-four, and that no vacancy which may here- 


after occur, on any account whatever, shall be filled 
until the Board is reduced below twenty-one members, 
and that at no time shall any vacancy be filled hereafter 
so as to increase the Board above twenty-one. 

After the election of officers, appointment of com- 
mittees on Woman's Work, Rules and Regulations, 
Hall of Philanthropy, and the transaction of other 
routine work, the Board of Lady Managers adjourned 
to meet in New York, November 17, 1902. 


The Board of Lady Managers met on November 17, 
1902, pursuant to adjournment of the meeting of Sep- 
tember 30, 1902. Meanwhile, in response to a request 
from the Board of Lady Managers for permanent head- 
quarters for their accommodation during the Exposi- 
tion period, to be afterward used as a Hall of Phil- 
anthropy, President Francis, on November 5, 1902, 
referred to the fact that the Missouri State Federa- 
tion had instructed its delegates to the Convention of 
the General Federation of Women's Clubs, to be held 
at Los Angeles, to recommend such a memorial of 
woman's work, but that the Federation had failed to 
take action in the matter. 

The Exposition Company afterwards offered to con- 
tribute $50,000 toward the erection of such a building, 
if the Board of Lady Managers would raise $150,000, 
— $50,000 of which should be applied toward the build- 
ing, and $100,000 as a permanent endowment fund. 


At this meeting the matter of the Hall of Philanthropy 
was fully considered, and the above mentioned propo- 
sition of the Exposition Company declined. 

At the session held on the 19th of November, a mo- 
tion was made and carried that there should be an eighth 
vice-president, and Mrs. Daniel Manning was elected 
to fill that office. 

President Carter, of the National Commission, was 
invited to be present at this meeting, and again empha- 
sized his views in regard to the prerogatives of the mem- 
bers of the Board in performance of the duties which 
might be assigned them. He also spoke as follows : — 

With the power comes the responsibility. This Ex- 
position, if the general tone of business continues, ought 
to be, in the matter of attendance and universal inter- 
est, a pronounced success. The matter of interesting 
the world, securing attendance, securing exhibits, at- 
tracting the attention of different classes of people would 
insure success. The law of Congress is pretty thoroughly 
considered. It was pretty thoroughly debated in the 
House of Representatives particularly. No part of the 
law was more thoroughly considered than this part, 
which contemplated the interesting of the women of the 
world in the Exposition about to be given. 

Determine at the earliest day practicable what the 
view of this Board is as to what part women are to take 
in the Exposition. That subject cannot be too promptly 
considered or decided upon. You are to plan the scope 
of women's work in this Exposition. Give the repre- 
sentation of women's work in this Exposition a national 


or international character. If of an international charac- 
ter will this Board undertake to select the people who are 
to go abroad to represent the women of this country in 
appealing to the women of other countries ? ... It is a 
matter of supreme consequence that the women of the 
country shall be represented in a manner that will be 
approved by themselves at least. ... I think it rests 
with you to formulate plan and scope and transmit that 
formulated plan and scope to this Commission to be 
approved by the Commission, and approved by the 
Local Company, as a part of the program of this Expo- 
sition. It was the intention when this Board was ap- 
pointed to get together a body of representative women 
from all over the United States and that this body when 
assembled would become a directing force along general 
lines. In the matter of women's work there is no limit. 
You exercise "general supervisory control." I would 
say that, in pursuance of authority granted the Board 
of Lady Managers, this Board should adopt resolutions 
stating that no woman shall be appointed to represent 
the Exposition by either the National Commission or 
the Local Company until the name of such represent- 
ative shall have been submitted to and ratified by this 
Board of Lady Managers. You will find in talking with 
this Company a keen anxiety to quickly adopt any sug- 
gestions that will bring about success in any line. Claim 
whatever you think in the form of a rule, assert your 
right to approve or confirm if you please every one 
appointed to push this woman's work anywhere. In 
regard to a building — say what you want ; submit 
your plans to this Commission ; place your wants in the 
form of a resolution to be approved by the Commission 


and the Local Company; the approval will carry with it 
the expense. We will regard any expenditure which 
you may make as "legitimate Exposition work," — 
commissioners to go abroad, or whatsoever it may be. 

There is a large amount of money available for this 
Exposition. It has been handled with the utmost care, 
skill, and excessive prudence by the Company, but that 
shows merely a good, sound economical management; 
however, there is ample means, means that will un- 
questionably apply to meet every want. 

At the session on November 20, the Committee named 
to prepare resolutions to be presented through the 
National Commission to the Exposition Company, 
oflfered the following, which were adopted, and copies 
forwarded to the Commission and Company : — 

First : The Board of Lady Managers respectfully 
call the attention of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition 
Company to the Act approved March 3, 1901, under 
which Act this Board has the power to appoint one 
member of all committees authorized to award prizes 
for such exhibits as may have been produced in whole 
or in part by women. The Board of Lady Managers 
decline to accept the amendment of the Louisiana Pur- 
chase Exposition Company to this Act of Congress 
expressed in a resolution of the Executive Committee 
of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company as 
follows: To nominate one member of all committees 
authorized to award prizes for such exhibits as shall 
have been produced in whole or in part by female labor. 

Second : The Board protests against the appointment. 




without its authority, of any representative at home 
or abroad connected with work for which this Board 
is responsible. 

Third: That the Board of Lady Managers select, 
with the approval of the Local Company, two of its 
members to awaken interest in the Louisiana Purchase 
Exposition among women in other countries. 

Fourth: That the President of this Board be au- 
thorized, at her discretion, to appoint committees to 
visit each State to enlist the cooperation of the women 
in securing the proper representation of woman's work 
at the Exposition in St. Louis; and in furtherance, that 
the Governor of each State be formally requested to 
name two women on the State Commission. 

Fifth: That the Local Company be requested to 
appropriate $50,000 for the erection of a woman's 
building on the Fair Grounds, to be used after the close 
of the Exposition as a Hall of Philanthropy. 

Sixth: The Board of Lady Managers request the 
Directors of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Com- 
pany to provide money to meet the current expenses of 
this Board. They are further requested to notify this 
Board in writing of the amount appropriated for this 
purpose. It is the sense of this Board that an allowance 
of five cents per mile and $10 per diem be allowed; the 
per diem to cover the time from the day of departure 
until the day of return. 

Seventh : That the Board of Lady Managers of the 
Louisiana Purchase Exposition, acting in harmony with 
the local committees appointed by the President of this 
Board, shall have supervisory control of the entertain- 
ments of all women's organizations desiring to hold 


meetings in the building that will be appropriated to the 
use of this Board. 

Respectfully submitted, 
(Signed) Mrs. Richard W. Knott, Chairman. 

Mrs. James L. Blair, President. 

To the copy of the above resolutions which was sent 
to the National Commission, President Carter replied as 
follows : — 

St. Louis, U. S. A., November 29, 1902. 

Mrs. ApoUine M. Blair, 

President Board of Lady Managers, 
St. Louis, Mo. 

Dear Madam, — I have the honor to acknowledge 
receipt of a set of resolutions adopted by the Board of 
Lady Managers at their meeting in New York City, on 
November 20, 1902. 

You are informed that the resolutions have been 
transmitted, with proper recommendations, to the Local 
Company for consideration. You are also informed 
that correction of objectionable rule in the "Rules and 
Regulations governing the system of awards," to which 
reference is made in the first subdivision of the reso- 
lutions, has been made. The rule referred to, as cor- 
rected, will embrace the word "appoint" instead of 

You are also informed that the Commission deems 
it inexpedient to apply to Congress for an appropria- 
tion to aid in the construction of the proposed Hall of 
Philanthropy. The Commission does not wish to be 
understood as being opposed to this commendable 
enterprise, but instead favors the proposition. The 


disinclination to appeal to Congress for aid arises from 
an understanding with the Company and leading mem- 
bers of Committees of Congress, that no further appro- 
priation would be sought from the General Government 
in connection with the Fair. 

After a conference with the President and the Secre- 
tary of the Exposition Company, the Commission is 
gratified to be able to inform you of the disposition of 
those officers to consult the Board of Lady Managers 
with reference to the appointment of all persons in- 
tended in any manner to represent the Board, or its 
work, in the exploitation of the Exposition at home or 
abroad. We are also able to convey to you the assurance 
which has been conveyed to the Commission by Pre- 
sident Francis, that it is the disposition of the Exposi- 
tion Company to furnish the Board of Lady Managers 
adequate and comfortable accommodations upon the 
grounds controlled by the Company. The President of 
the Company will communicate with your honorable 
Board with reference to this and other subjects referred 
to in the resolutions. 

You are informed that, agreeable to an arrangement 
made nearly twelve months ago, the accounts of the 
Board of Lady Managers will be paid direct by the 
Exposition Company. It is desirable that your Board 
should transmit all accounts direct to Mr. W. B. Stevens, 
Secretary of the Exposition Company, by whom all 
settlements will be made. 

Yours very truly, 
(Signed) Thos. H. Carter, President. 

Meeting adjourned subject to the call of the President. 



The next meeting of the Board of Lady Managers 
was called by the President, Mrs. Blair, at the Murray 
Hill Hotel, New York City, New York, February 16, 
1903. A letter was read that had been received by the 
President of the Board from the Exposition Company, 
in which an offer was made, for the exclusive use of the 
Board, of one of the permanent buildings to be erected 
for the Washington University (and subsequently to be 
used by it as a Hall of Physics), to be known during the 
Exposition period as the "Building of the Board of 
Lady Managers." This structure appealed specially 
to the members of the Board, from the fact that it had 
been endowed by a woman, Mrs. Eliza Eads How, of 
St. Louis, and the offer was accepted. The building 
was finished about the middle of April, 1904, and there- 
after remained the headquarters of the Board during 
the term of the Exposition. While it was not perfectly 
adapted for a woman's building, they made it as at- 
tractive as possible, and it served for their entertaining 
and occupancy far better than had been anticipated. 
Upon motion, it was decided that the furnishing of the 
building for the Board of Lady Managers be under 
the supervision of the President of the Board. 

On February 16, 1903, a communication was re- 
ceived from Mr. Corwin H. Spencer, Acting President 
of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company, stat- 
ing that $3000 had been appropriated by the Executive 
Committee of the Exposition Company for the use of 
the Board of Lady Managers. 


Although the members of the Board were not only 
willing but anxious to settle upon some definite line of 
action, the vagueness of their powers outlined by the 
members of the Commission, together with the obstacle 
presented by the lack of funds, had caused them to be 
most conservative in action; without the positive as- 
surance of financial aid they were not in a position to 
decide definitely upon a plan of future work. This con- 
dition eventually led to the appointment by the Presi- 
dent, Mrs. Blair, of two committees, one known as the 
"Committee to confer with the National Commission 
on matters pertaining to the Board of Lady Managers," 
and which consisted of Miss Lavinia H. Egan, Chair- 
man, Mrs. Finis P. Ernest, Mrs. Helen Boice-Hun- 
sicker, and Mrs. William E. Andrews; and the second, 
known as a "Committee on Woman's Work," consist- 
ing of Mrs. Mary Phelps Montgomery, Chairman, Mrs. 
John M. Holcombe, Mrs. Daniel Manning, Mrs. Ed- 
ward L. Buchwalter, Miss Helen M. Gould, Mrs. Rich- 
ard W. Knott, and Miss Anna L. Dawes. Both of these 
committees were to confer with the National Commis- 
sion, and the latter committee with the Local Company. 

Upon motion, duly seconded and carried, the meet- 
ing adjourned to meet in St. Louis, April 29, 1903. 

A reception was given by the Board of Lady Mana- 
gers to the President-General, officers and members of 
the 12th Continental Congress of the Daughters of the 
American Revolution, at the New Willard Hotel, in 
Washington, D. C, on February 26, 1903. The Com- 
mittee consisted of Mrs. Horton, Chairman, Mrs. Hol- 
combe, Mrs. Montgomery, Mrs. Andrews, Mrs. Moores, 


Mrs. Coleman, Mrs. Hunsicker, Mrs. Porter, and Mrs. 
Hanger. Invitations were extended to the President of 
the United States and his Cabinet, Diplomatic Corps, 
oflBcials of the Army and Navy, members of the Senate 
and House of Representatives, the Government Board, 
the National Commission of the Louisiana Purchase 
Exposition, and officials connected with the Exposition 
resident in Washington. The Exposition Company was 
most generous in allowing $600 for the cost of this 

The two committees appointed to confer with the 
National Commission and Local Company on matters 
pertaining to the Board of Lady Managers, met at the 
Southern Hotel, St. Louis, March 11, 1903, and were 
admitted to a conference with the National Commis- 
sion on that day. The subject of the work and duties 
of the Board was reopened by the following questions : — 

First : What special work does the Commission de- 
sire the Board to perform before the opening of the 
Exposition ? 

Second: What service will the Commission require 
from the Board between the opening and closing of the 
Exposition ? 

To these questions Senator Carter replied as follows : — 
The plan and scope of your work must first be de- 
termined, and, in an advisory or suggestive sense only, 
I venture to submit for your consideration a plan and 
scope which would require your Board : — 

First: To make due preparation for the intelligent 


selection of one member of all committees authorized 
to award prizes for such exhibits as may have been 
produced in whole or in part by female labor. 

Second : To advise the Commission, from time to 
time, as to the desired extent and the appropriate 
manner of woman's participation in the ceremonies 
incident to the dedication, opening, and conduct of the 

Third : To confer and advise with the officers and 
chiefs of the Exposition on the progress being made 
from time to time in exciting the interest and enlisting 
the cooperation of women in the several departments, 
and to appoint all committees necessary to carry out 
the purpose, and to procure information on the extent 
of woman's participation in the Exposition. 

Fourth : To encourage the presentation of exhibits 
by women by correspondence, advertising, or such other 
means as the Company may approve. 

Fifth : To collect statistics of women's work in con- 
nection with the Exposition, for publication. 

Sixth : To encourage by correspondence, or other- 
wise, attendance at the Exposition of societies and 
associations of women, and the holding of conventions, 
congresses, and other meetings of women. 

Seventh : To maintain within the grounds during the 
period of the Exposition an organization for the relief 
of women and children who may be found in need of 
aid, comfort, or special protection. 

Eighth : To receive and officially entertain women, 
when requested so to do by the Exposition Company 
and the Commission. 

Ninth: To commission members of the Board, or 


others, with the approval of the Commission and the 
Company, to travel in the interest of the Exposition, 
either at home or abroad. 

Tenth: To provide for the constant attendance in 
rotation of at least three members of the Board at the 
Exposition Grounds from April 30 to December 1, 1904. 

Eleventh: To issue bulletins from time to time as 
the Company and the Commission may approve, for 
the special information of women, and the exploitation 
of their contributions to the success of the Exposition. 

These suggestions may be supplemented by others, 
and some of them may be disregarded by you entirely. 
They will, however, serve to convey to you the views 
of the Commission on the general range of work you 
can, if you wish, undertake to perform, subject only to 
the limitation that you submit your plan when agreed 
upon to the Commission and the Company for con- 
sideration and approval, to the end that harmony may 

Let us not at any time lose track of this one import- 
ant fact, that the Exposition will be enormously ex- 
pensive at best, and that it does not befit us to look up 
ways and means of expending money exclusively, but to 
have some regard for the income of the Exposition Com- 
pany. Widespread and indiscriminate entertainment 
of societies will be quite impossible. Within the scope 
of your work there should be some committee or sub- 
division of the Board to begin at once to ascertain what 
different societies, organizations, and women's con- 
gresses could be assembled here, and then bring them 
in within the scope of your work for submission to the 
Company. We will gladly submit to the Company a 


plan for the disposal of matters that will involve a rea- 
sonable limit of entertainment, and have means placed 
at your disposal for correspondence, exploitation, and 
entertainment. Your committees ought to be at work 
now and continue diligently at work until the Expo- 
sition gates open. After that you will have ample work 
to do in connection with carrying out the projects you 
will have previously originated. 


The meeting set for April 29 was called by the Presi- 
dent of the Board one day earlier, and the members 
met in the Administration Building, Exposition Grounds, 
April 28, 1903. 

The announcement of the death on February 27, 
1903, of Mrs. Washington A. Roebling, the member 
of the Board from New Jersey, was read and received 
with sorrow, and a committee was appointed to draft 
suitable resolutions to be spread upon the minutes of 
the Board. 

On that day the following Rules and Regulations 
were adopted by the Board, a copy being submitted 
to the National Commission and subsequently ap- 
proved by that body on April 29, 1903, and by the 
Exposition Company January 12, 1904. 


No. 1. Meetings. 
All the meetings of the Board shall be held in the city 
of St. Louis. The regular meetings shall be held at 


such times as may be designated by a majority vote 
of the Board. 

Special meetings shall be subject to call of the Presi- 
dent of the Board, the President of the National 
Commission, or written request of five members of 
the Board. The President shall convene the Board 
in accordance with the terms of the request. 

No. 2. Officers. 

The oflBcers of the Board shall consist of a President, 
eight Vice-Presidents, a Secretary, and a Treasurer. 

No. 3. Duties of Officers. 

The President shall preside at all meetings of the 
Board, and shall sign all requisitions for funds to be 
advanced to the Treasurer, and examine and approve 
all accounts to be paid by the Treasurer. 

No. 4. Duties of Vice-Presidents. 

In the absence of the President, the Vice-Presidents 
shall preside alternately from session to session, in the 
order of their oflBcial designation. 

No. 5. Duties of Secretary. 

The Secretary shall keep a correct record of the pro- 
ceedings of the Board, and shall attend to the giving 
or serving of all notices of meetings. She shall conduct 
the oflBcial correspondence of the Board of Lady 
Managers, and shall perform such other duties as 
the Board may assign to her. She shall notify all 
Committees of their appointments, and also the work 
assigned to them. Previous to each meeting she shall 
make out an order of business for the Chair, and 
also a list of Standing and Special Committees. 
She shall make her headquarters in the city of St. 






No. 6. Duties of Treasurer. 

The Treasurer shall have the care and custody of all 
funds coming into the possession of the Board, and 
shall disburse the same only upon order of the Board, 
and the approval of its President. At each regular 
meeting of the Board she shall render an itemized 
statement of all receipts and disbursements from the 
date of the last report, and shall, whenever directed 
by the Board, deposit the unexpended balance with 
the Treasurer of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition 

No. 7. Quorum. 

Nine members of the Board shall constitute a Quorum 
for the transaction of business. 

No. 8. Executive Committee. 

The Board shall elect an Executive Committee of 
seven members. It shall be the duty of the Executive 
Committee to devise plans relative to the work within 
the legal jurisdiction of the Board, and submit from 
time to time recommendations to the Board for con- 
sideration and action with the view of making arrange- 
ments for appropriate Committees. The Executive 
Committee shall elect its own Chairman and Secretary. 

No. 9. Standing Committees. 

The following Standing Committees shall be con- 
stituted and shall be elected by ballot, unless other- 
wise specifically provided herein. 
First. A Committee on Rules. 
Second. A Committee on Work. 
Third. A Committee on Awards. 
Fourth. Exposition Rotating Committee. 
Fifth. An Auditing Committee. 


No. 10. Committee on Rules. 

The Committee on Rules shall consist of three (3) 
members, and shall prepare and present to the Board 
such amendments to the Rules and Regulations as 
may from time to time be found necessary. 

No. 11. Committee on Work. 

The Committee on Work shall consist of five mem- 
bers and shall prepare and present to the Executive 
Committee a plan covering the scope of Woman's 

No. 12. Committee on Awards. 

The Committee on Awards shall consist of three mem- 
bers, whose duty it shall be to collect and report to 
the Board such information as will enable the Board 
to execute intelligently the provision of Section 6 of 
the Act of Congress, approved March 3, 1901. 

No. 13. The Exposition Rotating Committee. 
A Committee of six members of the Board to be 
designated by the Executive Committee shall be in at- 
tendance at the Exposition from April 30 to Decem- 
ber 1, 1904, in the discharge of such duties as may be 
prescribed by the National Commission, or may arise 
from time to time within that period, and appropri- 
ately require consideration and action of such Com- 
mittee. Four members of each Committee shall be 
appointed at the end of each calendar month, begin- 
ning May 31, 1904. The appointments shall be so 
made that no member shall serve more than two 
consecutive months. 

No. 14. Auditing Committee. 

The Auditing Committee shall consist of three mem- 
bers elected by the Board, and shall examine and 


audit the accounts of the Treasurer, and present to 
the Board a written report concerning each settlement, 
which shall be made promptly upon the receipt of the 
Treasurer's itemized statement required by Rule 6. 

No. 15. Special Committees. 

Special Committees may be appointed by direction 
of the Board to consider matters not included within 
the jurisdiction of any Committee provided for herein. 

No. 16. Amendments. 
These Rules and Regulations may be amended at 
any regular meeting of the Board by a two-thirds 
vote of the members present, written notice of pro- 
posed amendment having been given at least one 
day in advance of action thereon. 

No. 17. Order of Business. 
Reading of the Minutes. 
Reports of Standing Committees. 
Reports of Special Committees. 
Unfinished Business. 
New Business. 

This order of business may be suspended at any regu- 
lar meeting by two-thirds vote of the members present. 

No. 18. 

Robert's Rules of Order shall govern the proceed- 
ings of this Board. 


Upon the centennial of the day the Louisiana Terri- 
tory was sold by Napoleon to the United States, the 
Exposition which embodied all that the vast territory 



now represents was consecrated to its purpose. In the 
presence of 50,000 persons, the Louisiana Purchase 
Exposition was formally dedicated. Twelve thousand 
troops, the pick of the United States regular army, and 
the best militia of the country, moved past a given point 
for one hour and a half, under Major-General Henry 
C. Corbin, U. S. A., Grand Marshal. Governors and 
their stafiFs were loudly cheered as they appeared at the 
head of their state troops. Gathered on the reviewing 
stand was a notable assembly, — our Chief Executive 
President Roosevelt, ex-President Cleveland, Ambassa- 
dors and Diplomats, Cabinet OflBcers, the Lieut.-General 
of the Army Nelson A. Miles, Cardinal Gibbons, and 
Bishop Potter, Senators, Representatives, Governors, 
State and Territorial Representatives, Government 
Officials, President Francis, and the Board of Directors 
of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company, the 
Louisiana Purchase Exposition Commission, and the 
Board of Lady Managers. 

At the meeting in the Liberal Arts Building following 
the parade. President Carter of the National Commis- 
sion addressed the great assembly. The enthusiasm 
was unbounded, when, in turn, the President and ex- 
President spoke to the vast multitude. After the meet- 
ing an adjournment was made to the Administration 
Building, where President Roosevelt and ex-President 
Cleveland received many of their friends, and the 
Board of Lady Managers entertained a distinguished 
company at five o'clock in their rooms in the Adminis- 
tration Building. Among the guests present at the din- 
ner tendered in the evening by Hon. David R. Francis 
to President Roosevelt, in the building of the Hall of 


Congresses, were several members of President Roose- 
velt's Cabinet, ex-President Cleveland, Lieut.-General 
Nelson A. Miles, diplomatic representatives of thirty 
foreign governments. Governors, Senators, National 
Commissioners, and the Board of Lady Managers. 

The second, or "International Day," the procession 
was arranged as on the first day, the introductory 
oration being delivered in the Palace of Liberal Arts. 
President Francis extended greeting to representatives 
of foreign governments, and responses were made by 
Ambassador Jusserand, of the French Government, 
and Senor Don Emilio de Ojeda, Spanish Minister to 
the United States. In the evening a reception was given 
at the St. Louis Club in honor of the Diplomatic Corps, 
and a banquet was tendered to visiting journalists in the 
Hall of Congresses on the Exposition Grounds. 

The third, or "State Day," the visiting governors 
were specially entertained, and the closing exercises 
held, after which the governors and representatives of 
different states proceeded to the sites that had been 
allotted their respective state pavilions, and broke ground 
and laid corner-stones with appropriate ceremonies. 

In all of the exercises of the three opening days the 
members of the Board of Lady Managers, by their par- 
ticipation in the ceremonies, represented the women of 
the country. 

On Saturday, May 2, 1903, the following resolution 
was ojffered by Mrs. Edward L. Buchwalter, the first 
vice-president : — 

Whereas, the Board of Lady Managers of the 
Louisiana Purchase Exposition find it necessary to have 


funds at their disposal for the proper conduct of the 
business of the Board, therefore, 

Be it Resolved, — That a committee of three be 
appointed to take the necessary steps to secure such an 
appropriation from Congress at the earUest possible 
date; that said Committee be and is hereby directed to 
take immediate action in such matter, and that said sum 
shall not be less than $100,000. 

Upon the adoption of this resolution, Mrs. Daniel 
Manning was made Chairman, and in accepting the 
appointment she asked the members of the Board to use 
their influence with the Senators and Congressmen of 
their States for the passage of the bill. 

At this meeting (May 2, 1903), the President an- 
nounced the appointment of the following Standing 
Committees: Executive, Entertainment, Foreign Rela- 
tions, Women's Congresses, Press; and the Committee 
on Woman's Work was enlarged. 

An invitation was received from the Wednesday 
Club of St. Louis, in which a reception was tendered 
by that organization to the Board. The courtesy was 
greatly appreciated and promptly accepted, and the 
occasion brought together an interesting assembly. 


DECEMBER 15-18, 1903 

No further meeting was held until December 15, 1903; 
this was called by the National Commission, and held 
in St. Louis, at the Southern Hotel, Mrs. E. L. Buch- 
walter, first vice-president, presiding. The following 
communication was then read by the Secretary : — 

St. Louts, U. S. A., October 21, 1903. 
Board of Lady Managers Louisiana Purchase Exposition. 
Ladies, — I herewith tender to you my resignation 
from the office of President, to which you did me the 
honor to elect me. Begging you to accept the same with 
my best wishes for the welfare and success of the Board 
in the future, I remain 

Always faithfully yours, 

Apolline M. Blair. 

The resignation was accepted by the Board, and a 
committee appointed to prepare suitable resolutions. 
At the afternoon session Miss Dawes, Chairman of this 
Committee, presented the following : — 

Resolved, — That the Board of Lady Managers of 
the Louisiana Purchase Exposition accepts with regret 
the resignation of Mrs. James L. Blair as President; that 
it places upon its records its appreciation of her service 
to the Board and to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition. 
Her large abilities and her experience in social and pub- 
lic affairs have been freely given to this work, and she has 



served the Board and the Exposition with unwavering 
zeal and with conspicuous ability. Her enthusiasm for 
the Exposition, her far-reaching sense of its aims and 
scope, her large conception of the possibilities of our 
connection therewith as a Board, and her interests in its 
needs inspired her administration of its affairs and call 
for the recognition and thanks of this Board, whose head 
and representative she was, and of the Louisiana Pur- 
chase Exposition which she served. 

Resolved, — That this Board of Lady Managers 
express its recognition and gratitude by adopting these 
resolutions and that the Secretary be directed to send a 

copy to Mrs. Blair. 

Anna L. Dawes. 

Helen Miller Gould. 

Frances Marion Hanger. 

Jennie Gillmore Knott. 

Emily S. G. Holcombe. 

On motion of Mrs. Manning, seconded by Mrs. Cole- 
man, the resolution was unanimously adopted. 

President Francis then appeared before the Board of 
Lady Managers, and upon the invitation of the Chair- 
man made an address, in which he said, in answer to 
a request to give to the Board some idea concerning 
the cost of the Exposition : — 

I can only give you the comparisons with other of the 
largest expositions ever held in this or any other country. 
I will state as compared with the Paris Exposition, we 
are now nearer a state of completion than that Expo- 
sition was on the date of its opening. That no Exposi- 

MEETING OF DECEMBER 15-18, 1903 57 

tion was ever so near completed four and a half months 
prior to its opening. Of course we have a great deal of 
work to do, and we must bear in mind that although 
we use a vast amount of material, 90 per cent, of the 
cost is put in labor — not only the labor out on the 
grounds, but the labor in the lumber districts, in 
the loading and unloading of the lumber — and this 
comprises the greater part of our buildings as they 
are built almost exclusively of lumber — the value of it 
is comparatively small as compared with the cost of 
preparing it for market and getting it here. 

Then the matter of wages — we have to pay 33 per 
cent, higher wages than were paid at the Chicago Ex- 
position. At that time carpenters got 35 cents per hour, 
— you may remember that was the year of the panic, — 
1893. When we first began, carpenters in this town 
were getting 45 cents an hour — they are now getting 
55 cents an hour, and when you bear in mind that we 
have 5000 carpenters at work there, an advance of 25 
per cent, in wages means something. 

We broke ground on December 20, 1901, but we 
did that because it was the anniversary of the transfer 
of this territory from the French Government to the 
United States. But that was two years ago, and in those 
two years wages have gone up in St. Louis, from 45 to 
55 cents; plumbers' wages have advanced 25 per cent.; 
plasterers were getting $4.50 per day — we are now 
paying them $6, and on last Friday they struck for $7. 
The hod-carriers who carry plaster for the plasterers 
are getting $4 per day — count 25 working days in the 
month, our hod-carriers are receiving $100 per month, 
which is more than educated clerks receive. A while 


ago those hod-carriers struck for $4.50 per day. . . . 
This is a Universal Exposition — we do not want to 
take a stand against union labor, but if it is to be a Uni- 
versal Exposition we must stand by the laws of the 
United States so as to admit contract labor from abroad 
— men who work on erecting the foreign exhibits. 

We were paying our day laborers 22^ cents an hour, 
and the railroads throughout the country were giving 
them 22|^ cents an hour; on the 25th of September they 
wrote that they had four demands; one was the recog- 
nition of the union (no one ever knew they had a union) ; 
second, that eight hours should constitute a day; third, 
they should get 30 cents an hour; and fourth, time and 
one half for overtime. Well, in order not to stop our 
work I told the men to pay them 25 cents an hour, but 
that we could not limit our work to an eight-hour day; 
it was in the fall and we had to take advantage of the 
fine weather — we would pay them 25 cents an hour 
and work as long as we wished them to work — ten 
hours. I said to the laborers, this is not a commercial 
enterprise; we are not running this for gain; we have 
put up $10,000,000 or $15,000,000; we are doing a 
patriotic duty, celebrating an historical event. . . . 

We have 50 per cent, more of buildings under roof 
than Chicago had at this time. We have 1240 acres of 
ground space covered by buildings, while Chicago had 
679 acres, which is nearly twice as much. When we 
say that the Chicago Company spent $22,000,000 I 
think you will say that under the circumstances nine- 
teen and a half millions is a small amount for us to 
spend. Of course, we have profited by their experience, 

which should be valuable to us. 


MEETING OF DECEMBER 15-18, 1903 59 

A committee was appointed on December 16, 1903, 
to confer with President Carter, and place before him 
the following resolution : — 

Resolved, — That the Board of Lady Managers 
respectfully request the National Commission to sus- 
pend its rules limiting the further appointments upon 
the Board, for the purpose of appointing a representative 
from the city of St. Louis upon the Board of Lady 

On the same day the following communication was 
received in reply : — 

Dear Miss Dawes, — The Commission has under 
consideration the question propounded by you, under- 
stood to be substantially as follows : " Is it the intention 
of the Commission and the Exposition Company to 
suspend the rule heretofore adopted, whereby it is pro- 
vided that no appointment will be made on the Board 
of Lady Managers, until the number shall be reduced 
below twenty-one?" 

In reply, I am authorized by the Commission to say 
that the Exposition Company, speaking through its 
President, has intimated that the Executive Committee 
of the Company will present a request to the Commis- 
sion for the suspension of the rule referred to, to the 
end that a lady residing in the city of St. Louis may 
be appointed a member of the Board of Lady Mana- 
gers, under such suspension of the rule. 

This request, we are advised, will be presented by 
the Company to-day, and the Commission is disposed 


to suspend the rule by unanimous consent in conform- 
ity to the request when presented, and to appoint the 
lady recommended by the Executive Committee of 
the Company. You will be advised of the action of the 
Commission on the subject under consideration at the 
earliest practicable moment. 

Very respectfully, 

Thomas H. Garter, President. 

Miss Anna L. Dawes, 

Chairman of Committee, Board of Lady Managers. 

Later the following letter was received from the Presi- 
dent of the National Commission on the same subject: — 

Madam, — By direction of the Commission I am 
authorized to acknowledge receipt of your resolution 
recommending that the Commission suspend the rule 
restricting the membership of the Board of Lady Mana- 
gers, to the end that an appointment may be made of a 
representative from the city of St. Louis. In reply thereto 
you are informed that the rule referred to cannot be sus- 
pended, save by the joint action of this Commission 
and the Exposition Company. The Commission feels 
indisposed to initiate any movement looking to its sus- 
pension. If requested by the Exposition Company to 
suspend the rule for the purpose of naming some lady 
residing in St. Louis, recommended by the Exposition 
Company, the Commission would probably, by unani- 
mous consent, suspend the rule for that purpose. 
Very respectfully, 

Thomas H. Carter, President. 

To the President of the Board of Lady Managers. 




MEETING OF DECEMBER 15-18, 1903 61 

As no decision could be reached by the Executive 
Committee of the Exposition Company in regard to a 
choice of representative from the city of St. Louis on 
the Board of Lady Managers, the Board felt the neces- 
sity of selecting a President from its existing member- 
ship, and at the next session, on December 16, again 
held in the Administration Building, Mrs. John M. 
Holcombe moved that "we proceed at once to elect a 
President of this Board." 

Mrs. Buchwalter, the Chairman, stated that it was 
in order to proceed with the election of a President of 
the Board, and asked for nominations. Miss Helen M. 
Gould spoke as follows : — 

I would like to nominate Mrs. Daniel Manning for 
this office. Mrs. Manning has had large experience in 
matters of this kind as head of the Daughters of the 
American Revolution; having resided in Washington 
as the wife of one of the members of Mr. Cleveland's 
Cabinet, and in representing our country abroad, having 
been one of our representatives at the Paris Exposition. 
I understand that Mrs. Manning is one of two women 
from this country who received the decoration from 
the French Government, and I take pleasure in nomi- 
nating her for the office of President of this Board. 

This nomination was seconded by several members, 
and as no other nominations were made, the tellers an- 
nounced the result of the vote: For Mrs. Manning, 
13 votes; one blank, Mrs. Manning not voting. 

The Chairman then thanked the members of the 
Board for the sympathy and help they had given her. 


In reply the Secretary extended to Mrs. Buchwalter 
the sincere thanks of the members of the Board for the 
efficient work she had performed as their 1st Vice- 
President and Honorable Chairman; and Miss Dawes 
spoke for the entire Board in expressing her thanks to 
Mrs. Buchwalter for her impartiality, confidence, good 
management, and elegance in presiding. 

Mrs. Daniel Manning, the newly elected President, 
then took the chair, and thanked the Board for the honor 
conferred upon her. 

The order of business was then proceeded with, and, 
pursuant to a wish expressed by the National Commis- 
sion to meet the Board of Lady Managers, the members 
of the Commission were announced and Mrs. Manning 
said : — 

Mr. President, and Gentlemen of the Commission: 
We understood that you would graciously come over 
and talk with us a little while. We are starting in on a 
new lease of life. We want to work for the Exposition 
to the best of our ability. We want your advice, and 
wish to consult you about a number of matters, but 
first, we would like to hear from you. 

President Carter responded as follows : — 

Madam President, and Ladies, — We have come to 
say a few words to you and to have you consult with 
us upon any subjects you desire to bring up. I do not 
know how graciously we have come, but we come very 
cheerfully. The subject of your remark has been under 
consideration for a long time and we all regret that a 

MEETING OF DECEMBER 15-18, 1903 63 

more definite conclusion has not been reached relative 
to the sphere of your activity in connection with the 
World's Fair. I think your report, the report of your 
committee of which Mrs. Montgomery is Chairman, 
and which she recently submitted, crystallizes into close 
compass about the line of action the Board might ap- 
propriately pursue. The report referred to dealt not 
only with the conclusion reached, but the details whereby 
those conclusions were reached. It included discussions 
formal and informal and certain correspondence relating 
to the subject. The Commission has approved that re- 
port in so far as it prescribed in definite form the sphere 
of your work, and with the approval of the Commission, 
that report has been forwarded to the Local Company, 
These resolutions or statements made by your Board, 
which in your judgment would constitute a proper 
sphere of action, seem to embody a field sufficiently 
broad to be worthy of your intentions. It was hoped by 
the Commission that during the present session of the 
Board, the members of the Local Company, together 
with the Commission, would be present for a conference 
— more informal than formal — which might result 
in a correct and definite understanding as to just what 
you were to do, and how you were to do it. 

The only conclusion which has been reached is that 
which gives you a contingent fund, which seems to have 
been adequate for the meagre necessities of the past, 
but I believe that up to this hour the exact part your 
Board is playing in connection with making this Expo- 
sition a success is far too indefinite to be satisfactory 
to you, and it is certainly not satisfactory to the Com- 
mission. Our Commission will adjourn to meet on the 


10th of January, and we hope by that time to be in re- 
ceipt of some communication from the Exposition 
Company announcing their disposition of the report 
I have referred to, and the scope of the work of the 
Board of Lady Managers. Notwithstanding that will 
be at a very late date, it is well to have it in sight. 

The ladies of your Board have been engaged, with- 
out much credit being given to the Board or to the ladies 
themselves, in the work of exploitation, a number of 
the ladies have done most eflBcient work in their respect- 
ive States — and some, in the adjoining States, — call- 
ing the attention of the people at large, and in some 
instances the legislative sessions, to the vastness, scope, 
and policy of the Exposition. It is unfortunate that your 
Board does not receive the credit which this line of 
meritorious effort deserves. In the end, I doubt not — 
that in the final reports, you will be accorded full meas- 
ure of credit for what you have done individually and 
collectively. The past has been devoid of results be- 
cause of a lack of understanding to start with. I think 
you are now beginning an era more promising than any 
outlook you have had in the past. I congratulate you 
upon having reached a condition of harmony within 
your own organization, which speaks well for the future. 
The earnestness of this Board, the disinterestedness of 
its members, leading them in the first instance to volun- 
teer their services to this great enterprise, has been an 
example to the whole country of national devotion which 
has been of great advantage to the Exposition manage- 
ment; your gratuitous and earnest effort has been a 
means of making the Exposition favorably known 
throughout this country, at least. Your expenses have 

MEETING OF DECEMBER 15-18, 1903 65 

been very light — I believe, up to this time, less than 
$20,000 — in the neighborhood of $20,000, which, con- 
sidering the long distances traveled, the number of 
meetings, is a trifling sum in comparison with what has 
been spent by similar boards of former expositions. 

As you are aware, the Act of Congress, under which 
both the Commission and your Board find warrant for 
existence, granted to the Local Company an appro- 
priation of $5,000,000 for the purposes of giving this 
Exposition. We have probably, in moments of incon- 
siderate feeling, been too prone to find fault — I speak 
of the Commission, not of the ladies — prone to find fault 
with the people here who have been doing the best 
they could. There has been a disposition to assume the 
control, to the exclusion of outside agencies (and this is 
but natural because it is inseparable — or is in evidence 
with reference to all official places in our Government 
— in fact it has been noticed that a man who is ordi- 
narily indolent, when placed in power will become very 
energetic in this respect). 

The Exposition Company has assumed a full meas- 
ure of the responsibilities — and, possibly, some of our 
responsibilities as well — for which we have not been 
duly grateful. Nevertheless, we are not inclined to blame 
these people, because they have contributed very largely 
and generously of local means to aid this enterprise, 
which leads them to the desire to supervise each and 
every detail in connection with this work. This desire 
to assume full responsibility is possibly responsible for 
the failure to assign to the ladies any particular work, 
and is also responsible for the curtailing of the jurisdic- 
tion of the National Commission. As the work pro- 


gresses, however, I think that the company reaHzes 
the necessity of drawing upon all the forces available 
to make the Exposition a success. 

This Commission had a long and pleasant inter- 
view with the President of the Exposition, at which 
time he brought out a desire for cooperation and assist- 
ance that had not yet been manifested. I believe now, 
as your body is organized, from the harmonious work 
accomplished at these meetings, and its cordial relations 
with the Exposition Company, and certainly with the 
Commission, the future promises more than has been 
accorded to similar organizations in the past. . . . We 
thank you, ladies, for the privilege of being before you, 
and cheerfully extend our salutations on the election 
of your President, and upon the good will and spirit of 
harmony which prevails among you. 

Mr. Lindsay then spoke as follows : — 

The Board of Lady Managers exists by operation of 
law, the same that called the National Commission into 
existence. It was the duty of the National Commission 
to create it. It was the duty of the National Commis- 
sion and of the local Board to prescribe the powers and 
duties of the Board of Lady Managers. Of course these 
duties could not be accurately and technically laid out; 
we could only confer the power and that would suggest 
what duties — what power within that general grant, 
they should exercise. It is not the duty of the Board of 
Lady Managers to be supervised by or to be subject to 
the local Board. I was struck when I read the report 
made by Mrs. Montgomery of her interview with the 

MEETING OF DECEMBER 15-18, 1903 67 

local Board, not by the gracious manner in which she 
was received and the graceful questions that were asked, 
but by the absolute failure in any particular to give 
definite reply or take any action upon any of the recom- 
mendations made by that Committee. 

What I think this Board ought to do is to outline or 
prescribe the actual things it intends to do, report that to 
the National Commission and the local Board, and then 
go ahead, not waiting to know whether this or that is 
within its powers, or whether or not this is expedient 
and whether it can be carried out. Let some one take 
the responsibility of saying you cannot do this or can- 
not do that. As long as you deal in generalities with 
the National Commission, or agree to everything that 
is brought up by the Local Company, this Board of 
Lady Managers will never become an active part or 
parcel of this great Exposition. 

I do not agree with my friend, Senator Carter, on 
another thing, and that is that these people are en- 
titled to any consideration on account of the money 
they have expended. They came to Congress and 
asked Congress for authority to do this very thing; 
they did not come to Congress for any benefit that they 
expected to result to the country, but on account of 
their own local interests and to glorify the Louisiana 
Purchase and the people of the Louisiana Purchase, 
and, upon agreeing that they would do these things, 
privilege was granted by Congress, and the appropria- 
tion made. That appropriation is not part of their 
fund — that is the fund of the United States which is 
being distributed in the city of St. Louis, preeminently 
for the city, and generally for the United States. And, 


was not this Board of Lady Managers created by the 
very Act of Congress, and have you not some rights in 
this matter, to the end that you may accomplish the 
work that has been assigned you ? 

I say the time has come when we have got to talk 
plainly and make some one responsible for your action 
or non-action. If either Board considers that you are 
going beyond your powers, they will have the right to 
make restrictions, but as long as you keep within these 
powers, and what you think you ought to do, I doubt 
if your work will be restricted in any way. 

It is now only four months before the Exposition 
opens, and if there is ever going to be anything accom- 
plished by this Board it is none too early to begin. For 
instance, the Act of Congress provides that this Board 
name a judge on all the juries that are to pass upon 
the results of female labor; we agreed to it and the 
local Board agreed to it. Now, then, have you any no- 
tice on which juries you are to be allowed to name a 
juror ? Have any steps been taken to indicate on which 
of these committees you are to make appointments.? 
The time has come for this work and if you are to have 
any authority, or if you are to do any of this work, it 
will not be of credit to this Board unless you are able 
to make the proper preparations for these appoint- 
ments. But, if you have three months to look around, 
you will be able to find the proper persons and make 
these appointments intelligently. I hope before the 
next meeting of the National Commission you will 
have agreed specifically upon what you can do, what 
you desire to do, and what you are ready to do, so 
that the scope of action and authority of this Board 



MEETING OF DECEMBER 15-18, 1903 69 

can be conferred upon it, and insisting that the local 
Board here either approve or disapprove of your 

I appreciate all the troubles and difficulties these 
people have had, and it is my earnest hope that they 
will be able to give the members of this Board a decided 
answer within the next month. . . . 

In reply to a statement made by a member of the 
Board that in an interview with the Executive Com- 
mittee of the Exposition Company, Mr. Skiff, the Di- 
rector of Exhibits, had said he could not give a list of 
exhibitors (or exhibits) until near the time of the open- 
ing of the Exposition, because he did not know what 
would be entered, and the lists would not be completed 
until about that time, Mr. Lindsay further said : — 

It was my opinion that when the lists of classifica- 
tion were completed, there was nothing else to be in- 
quired into; in that list, everything which includes the 
result of female labor constitutes the class on which 
you are to appoint a juror. The general classification 
forms a list that would be used for this purpose. 

But referring to another matter, I think that there 
should have been provided by Act of Congress a fund 
set apart for the ladies, to be used by them. Because, 
as long as you are compelled to go to the Commission, 
or to go to the local Board to ascertain what you can 
spend or what you cannot spend, just so long you will 
not be able to do anything effectually. I know that the 
local Board is going to object to all this, but when the 
local Board finds that by consenting to your reasonable 


wishes it is enhancing the interests of the Exposition, 
it will agree to a proper appropriation and other proper 
demands made by your Board which relieve that Board 
of any further duties on the subject. I believe that I 
have said all I care to say. But, referring to the rules, 
that Board and the Commission can advise you not to 
enforce certain rules, when the enforcement of them 
would lead you into diflBculties, but just as long as the 
rules you make for yourselves are within the scope of 
authority and duties granted us and prescribed to you, 
you can take directions from the Board or from the 
Commission if you choose to, but you do not need to 
do this unless you choose to. 

In response to the request of Mrs. Manning that 
Senator Thurston say a few words, he responded : — 

Perhaps everybody has been a little delinquent in 
getting this Board organized and in position where it 
can take up some proper work that will be of benefit 
and be agreeable to the ladies. I think, perhaps, with- 
out going into past history, that the Board of Lady 
Managers perhaps has failed to do what it might have 
done in the way of formulating a plan for its own par- 
ticipation in the Exposition, and that was growing out 
of circumstances which no longer exist. I believe now 
this Board is organized with a President who is heart 
and soul for the success of the Exposition. Without 
being tied up to anything in the way of local interests, 
it will be better able to compete with the coming situa- 
tion. There is, and has been a great deal of hesitancy 
on the part of the National Commission about attempt- 

MEETING OF DECEMBER 15-18, 1903 71 

ing to outline a plan of action for this Board of Lady 
Managers. We provided for your appointment accord- 
ing to law, and we fell into the belief, I hope it was not 
an error, that the ladies on this Board would know a 
great deal better what they wanted to do, what they 
ought to do, and what would be best for them to do, 
than this Board of men, who had never had anything 
to do with these ladies' departments except to partici- 
pate in the enjoyment of them when so fortunate as to 
be present. 

Now, you have prepared and outlined and accepted 
your rules and regulations which were approved by 
our Commission along in June, I think. They were 
prepared in April, — those rules and regulations were 
more than regulations for the procedure of your Board, 
as I recollect them, they very largely outlined the field 
of work for the Board of Lady Managers. They were 
adopted and modified a little by the National Commis- 
sion and sent to the Local Company. They were pre- 
pared in April, promptly sent to the Local Company 
because we thought without their action they could not 
go into effect — and there they have been ever since. 
To a limited extent it was never necessary to send them 
there so far as the organization and management of 
the Board of Lady Managers is concerned — but, when 
you step over that or attempt to outline the scope of 
your work, and your participation in the affairs of the 
Exposition, that part must go to the National Commis- 
sion and be approved. 

Suppose, for instance, these ladies decided they 
would like to participate in one of the National Con- 
gresses, that they would take charge of a certain Con- 


gress out at the Exposition, I do not think any of them 
could do that without the sanction of the Local Com- 

I am very positive in my views that when it comes 
to providing for the legislation of this Board for its par- 
ticipation in the Fair, it cannot be done without the 
National Commission, and especially without the per- 
mission of the Company. I do not think that they can 
decide to take up certain lines of work and go out there 
to do it without having some agreement on the subject. 

At the meeting of the Board on the day following, 
December 17, 1903, Mrs. Hanger tendered her resig- 
nation from the oflSce of the Secretary of the Board of 
Lady Managers, and Miss Lavinia H. Egan was unani- 
mously elected to fill the vacancy. Upon this occasion 
Mrs. Coleman presented the following motion : — 

That the resignation of Mrs. Hanger from the office 
of Secretary of this Board be accepted with regret, and 
that Mrs. Hanger be extended a hearty vote of thanks 
for her faithful, painstaking, and efficient work for the 
Board as such official. 

One of the most brilliant entertainments tendered the 
Board of Lady Managers was the reception given in its 
honor by the Woman's Club, at the Club House, on 
December 17, 1903. 

Up to this time the plans outlined by the members of 
the Commission, such as sending representatives abroad 
to interest the women of foreign countries in the Expo- 
sition, and other "suggestions" made by the Board, 

MEETING OF DECEMBER 15-18, 1903 73 

designated by the President of the Commission as legiti- 
mate Exposition work, had been rejected by the Com- 
pany. The members of the Board of Lady Managers, 
therefore, were now of the unanimous opinion that they 
would be most seriously embarrassed, and their serv- 
ices rendered ineffective and inoperative unless an 
appropriation could be secured from Congress to defray 
the cost of meetings and other necessary expenses. If 
they failed to secure funds of their own their power 
and influence in connection with the Exposition would 
continue to be limited and indefinite. 

Pursuant to the recommendations of the National 
Commission, therefore, as expressed at their meeting 
December 16, 1903, a new Legislative Committee was 
appointed on December 18, to take the place of the one 
created under the Resolution of May 2, 1903, with in- 
structions to the members to proceed immediately to 
Washington, where they arrived on January 5, 1904. 
The history and successful result of their work is given 
by the Chairman of that Committee in her final report. 


At the meeting of the Board of Lady Managers, held 
at its rooms in the Administration Building, March 1, 
1904, before the regular order of business was taken up, 
Mrs. Andrews asked for and obtained unanimous con- 
sent to speak to the members of the Board, and said : — 

In view of what has transpired at Washington since 
our last meeting, the extent of which only the members 
of our Legislative Committee realize, — for almost to a 
man the lower house was opposed to the appropriation, 
and it was only by arduous, strenuous, and noble work 
of our President and the members of that Committee 
that the results were attained, — I offer the following 
resolution : — 

1. Resolved, — That the thanks of the Board are 
due, and are hereby tendered, to the members of the 
Legislative Committee for securing an appropriation to 
defray our necessary expenses and thereby achieving 
the honorable emancipation of the Board. 

2. Resolved, — That the Board extend a vote of 
thanks to itself for the wisdom manifested in the selec- 
tion of Mrs. Daniel Manning as its President, who has 
so fully enlisted the best efforts of all the members of 
the Board, and who has begun her work by showing 
that deeds rather than words are of special value. 

The resolution was adopted by unanimous rising vote. 
On the following day President Francis addressed 
the Board as follows : — 

MEETING OF MARCH 1, 1904 75 

I am very glad to have this opportunity to talk to 
you. I desire to congratulate you upon your getting the 
appropriation from Congress for $100,000. I was very 
willing, indeed, as all the members of the Executive 
Committee were, to do what we could toward securing 
the money. After your worthy President waited upon 
the Executive Committee and was informed of our 
plan to ask a loan of $4,500,000 from the Treasury, she 
in turn informed us that the Board of Lady Managers 
had decided to ask for $100,000 for their own use; we 
very readily came to an agreement to the effect that we 
would join forces and see what we could accomplish 
with Congress. As you are aware, it is a very difficult 
matter to get money out of Congress at best, and when 
the Government had already spent about $1,250,000 
for its own exhibit, and when we had promised that we 
would not apply to Congress or appeal for any addi- 
tional aid, the circumstances under which we made 
that deal or presented that bill were especially trying 
and I think we all deserve to be congratulated upon 
the outcome. 

When I went to Washington I found your Presi- 
dent at the Capital with Mrs. Montgomery. They had 
all worked assiduously, and had made considerable 
headway in the Senate — in which body it was our 
plan to introduce the bill in the shape of an amend- 
ment to the urgent deficiency bill. 

While the matter was pending in the Senate, the 
question of this $100,000 was brought up. We very 
promptly assured the ladies that this amount would be 
added to our bill asking for a loan of $4,500,000. We 
preferred, of course, that we should not be expected to 


repay it. However, the bill was presented and passed, 
and this $100,000 is to be paid over to the Board of Lady 
Managers upon their order, and for such purposes as 
they may elect. The bill does not provide definitely 
out of which of our payments this $100,000 should 
come. The bill provided that we should get the money 
in four installments of one million each, and a final in- 
stallment of $600,000, not being payable until May. 
The bill does not provide out of which payment your 
$100,000 shall be paid, but I wish to say, on behalf of 
the Exposition Company, we are willing and ready to 
pay that whenever you ladies request that it shall be 
paid. We do not know what plans, if any, you have 
made or in what manner you are planning for the dis- 
bursement of that money. . . . 

Now, with regard to your money, I am not going to 
give you any gratuitous advice, but only wish to assure 
you that it is the intention of the Company, — that the 
Company is ready to give that money to you in any 
form you may desire it. It will be given to you in any 
installments you may designate, or it will be set aside in 
its entirety, to be used for no other purpose than to 
honor requisitions of the Board of Lady Managers, 

In other words, it is possible for us to do this, and 
we will do it to your satisfaction, and we will draw up a 
letter of instruction and set aside as a special credit in 
the Treasury the sum of $100,000 in accordance with 
our bill of Congress, approved blank date. The auditor 
will draw his warrants without the approval of the 
Treasurer of this Company, but merely upon the re- 
quisition of the Board of Lady Managers. The $100,000 
would be set aside in the Treasury of the Company, and 

MEETING OF MARCH 1, 1904 77 

you would have a written instrument and the Treasurer 
would have orders to honor checks made upon that 
$100,000 in satisfaction of requisitions approved by the 
Board of Lady Managers. 

Of course, as I said before, if you wish to take that 
money out and put it in some depository in St. Louis 
or elsewhere, it is at your disposal. You could get a 
check for a portion of the money or all of it if you wish. 
Our only obligation in connection with that $100,000 
now, is to repay it, as we have no intention or desire 
to avoid that part of it. 

Now, if you should take the money out and put it 
in some depository in St. Louis, or elsewhere to your 
credit, you would be put to the expense of organizing 
an auditing system, the same as we have been. 

I am willing, speaking on behalf of the Company, 
to give you the benefit of the auditing system without 
your incurring any additional expense, and if you wish, 
in order to make you doubly secure, I will get a letter 
from the Treasurer stating that he has, in accordance 
with the instructions of the President, set aside $100,000 
for the use of the Board of Lady Managers, and that 
the $100,000 can only be drawn by checks signed by your 
Treasurer and countersigned by your President. 

I only say this as a suggestion, because we all have 
become interested, but if you choose to ask us for $25,000 
of the money, or for all of it, we will give it you. 

Now, with regard to other expenses you may incur 
or have incurred, — I find, in my report made to me 
to-day, which was made at your request, we have paid 
you up to this time for mileage and per diem in attend- 
ing Board meetings $16,856. That includes the $3000 


for which no vouchers have been turned in as yet — you 
can keep that, with or without vouchers as you please 
— if you want your business in the proper shape, how- 
ever, it is more business-like for you to turn in the 
vouchers; however, that lies with you. 

Now, previous to the appropriation of the $100,000 
the Executive Committee had appropriated $15,000 
for the furnishing of the Woman's Building, which 
building, as you know, cost us $100,000 — of course, 
you could have gotten a building erected that would 
have answered your purpose as well and cost less than 
$100,000, but, under the terms of our contract with the 
Washington University, that amount was paid out of 
the rental fund of $750,000 which we paid for these 
buildings as they stand. 

Besides that $100,000 we promised to give you 
$15,000 for the furnishing of that building. When we 
made that promise we did not know you were going 
to get $100,000 from Congress, which we would have 
to pay back. . . . 

Now in view of what I have said, we feel that we 
will give you the $15,000 for your building if you insist 
upon it. That is, we have made the appropriation of 
$35,000 for the creche; the $15,000 toward the equip- 
ment of the Woman's Building, under the circum- 
stances, it seems to me, we should be relieved of that 
$15,000. I thought when I returned from Washington 
that the financial worry had been met, but I have real- 
ized within the past forty-eight hours that we cannot 
open the Exposition within the nineteen and one-half 
millions — we will not go back to Washington, however. 
We are economizing in every possible way. . . . 

MEETING OF MARCH 1, 1904 79 

An official communication was received by the Presi- 
dent of the Board of Lady Managers stating that in the 
draft of the contract between the Exposition Company 
and the Treasury Department, — 

It is provided that from the first payment of $1,000,- 
000 there shall be set aside by the Exposition Company 
$100,000 to be paid to the Board of Lady Managers 
according to the provisions of the Act and for no other 
purpose whatsoever. 

On March 3, 1904, therefore, the following resolutions 
were transmitted to the President of the Exposition 
Company : — 

Resolved, 1, — That the President of the Board of 
Lady Managers be authorized to send immediately a 
request to the Exposition Company for the full sum 
of $100,000 recently made available to said Board by 
special Act of Congress. 

Resolved, 2,— That said sum of $100,000 be de- 
posited to the credit of the Board of Lady Managers of 
the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, subject to draft 
of the Treasurer of said Board, countersigned by the 
President of the Board. 

On March 5, 1904, the two following letters were 
received : — 

Administration Building, 
Office of the Secretary, March 5, 1904. 

Madam President, — I am directed by President 
Francis to inform you that the Executive Committee 
has approved the requisition of the Board of Lady 


Managers for $100,000 made available to said Board 
from the Government loan by special Act of Congress, 
as set forth in the resolutions adopted by the Board 
March 3, 1904. 

Acting in accordance with the instructions of the 
Executive Committee, the President has this day depos- 
ited, out of the Government loan, the sum of $100,000 
with the Treasurer, Mr. Wm. H. Thompson, said sum to 
be drawn out by the Board of Lady Managers in accord- 
ance with the resolutions adopted by the Board, that is 
to say, to be " subject to draft of the Treasurer of said 
Board, countersigned by the President of the Board." 
Very respectfully, 

Walter B. Stevens, Secretary. 

To the President of the Board of Lady Managers, 
Administration Building. 

Administration Building, 
Office of the Secretary, March 5, 1904. 

Madam President, — I have this day received by 
deposit from the Government Loan, the sum of one 
hundred thousand dollars made available to the Board 
of Lady Managers by special Act of Congress. This 
sum will be held by me subject to draft of the Treasurer 
of the Board of Lady Managers, countersigned by the 
President of the Board of Lady Managers. 
Very respectfully, 

W. H. Thompson, Treasurer. 

To Mrs. Daniel Manning, 

President, Board of Lady Managers. 

The following is the provision made in the Urgent 
Deficiency Bill, which was passed on February 18, 1904, 



MEETING OF MARCH 1, 1904 81 

which secured to the Board of Lady Managers a sum 
sufficient to enable them to meet any obHgations which 
they might assume in the conduct of their participation 
in the affairs of the Exposition : — 

Provided, That of said sums one hundred thousand 
dollars shall be paid by said Louisiana Purchase Expo- 
sition Company to, or on the order of, the Board of 
Lady Managers of said Exposition for such purposes 
as said Board of Lady Managers shall approve, and at 
such times as said Board of Lady Managers shall re- 
quest the same. 



To the President and Board of Lady Managers, of the 

Louisiana Purchase Exposition. 

Ladies, — Immediately after the election of Mrs. 
Daniel Manning to the presidency of the Board of 
Lady Managers on December 16, 1903, a new Legisla- 
tive Committee was appointed to succeed the one that 
had been created by Mrs. James L. Blair, the former 
President. The Committee was composed of Mrs. 
Montgomery, Mrs. Coleman, and Mrs. Buchwalter, 
Chairman, and instructed to endeavor to procure from 
Congress an appropriation of $100,000 for the use of 
the Board, in order that it might be enabled to perform 
in a proper manner the purposes for which it had been 
brought into existence. 

It had become evident that the Exposition Company 
would require a much larger amount of money than 
was then at its command, in order to inaugurate and 
successfully continue the World's Fair. The men who 
had engineered the magnificent undertaking to this point 
in its development reasoned that, as they had already 
expended a sum far beyond that ever given any other 
similar project, they might not find a ready response 
to a request for further gifts. They were so confident 
of ultimate success, however, that they did not hesitate 
to ask Congress for a loan of four and a half millions of 
dollars in order to conduct the affairs of the Exposition. 

The President of the Board of Lady Managers con- 
ferred with the Executive Committee of the Exposition 


Company, and the offer was made to add to the amount 
of the loan for which it desired to negotiate the further 
sum of $100,000 to be set apart for the exclusive use 
of the Board of Lady Managers. Receiving the promise 
that this fund should be included, the members of the 
Legislative Committee went to Washington to aid in 
every way in their power the passage of the bill provid- 
ing for said loan. 

Upon the arrival of the Committee in Washington, 
on January 5, the members found they had undertaken 
what eventually proved to be a most arduous task 
against great odds. They found the most deep-seated, 
persistent opposition to granting another dollar to the 
Fair, and were told President Francis had been advised 
to defer his trip to Washington until the latter part 
of January, as it would be hazardous to attempt the 
passage of the bill until the strong feeling against it 
then existing had abated. Many members of Congress 
strongly advised the Legislative Committee to ask for 
a special appropriation, but it had been agreed that one 
appropriation should cover the requirements of both 

Mr. James S. Tawney, of Minnesota, member of the 
House of Representatives, and Chairman of the Com- 
mittee for this and similar appropriations, when in St. 
Louis, had listened with interest to the representation 
of the subject setting forth the needs of the Board of 
Lady Managers, and kindly had promised his good 
offices in helping to advance their cause. He promptly 
granted an interview when informed that the Committee 
had arrived in Washington, and, while most courteous, 
did not disguise the fact that there were grave dangers 


ahead for the loan to the Exposition Company, which 
had been made a part of the Urgent Deficiency Bill. He 
examined the budget which had been prepared, giving 
careful scrutiny to each item, and, after some sugges- 
tions, and minor changes, a budget was submitted to 
him which was afterwards used. 

On January 29, President Francis went before the 
Senate Committee, and on February 1, appeared before 
the House Committee on behalf of a loan for the Ex- 
position Company. 

During the long interim preceding the arrival of 
President Francis and those aiding him, those of the 
Committee who had remained in the Capital were un- 
tiring in their efforts to make friends for the bill, and 
as their cause was heartily indorsed by their respective 
senators, and many members of their state delegations, 
they became most hopeful of ultimate success. 

The unceasing energy of the members of the Legis- 
lative Committee was admirably aided by the President 
of this Board, who had been untiring in her efforts to 
make friends for the bill, and had used these efforts in 
a masterly manner. Her large acquaintance among and 
knowledge of men of affairs in Washington, and her 
clear statements as to the way in which this Board had 
been created, and her convincing argument that the 
work of the Board must of necessity be most inadequate 
and inefiBcient by reason of lack of funds, gained many 
advocates for the bill, and to her is due the credit 
for the success of the work which the Committee was 
appointed to do. She was always at work, unresting, 
unhasting, and, although weary and worn with the 
interminable delay, neither she, nor any member of the 


Committee left any honorable means untried in order to 
secure what was so vitally necessary to the very existence 
of this Board during the Exposition. 

As a result of the combined efforts, some who had 
affected indifference became interested, and some who 
had previously stoutly declared unalterable opposition, 
finally yielded, not only working and voting themselves 
in favor of the bill, but persuading others to do so. It 
was naturally a source of great satisfaction to the mem- 
bers of the Legislative Committee that the strongest 
and most influential men of both Houses gave recogni- 
tion to the urgent claims which the Board of Lady Mana- 
gers had upon Congress. It was these men who insisted 
upon the incorporation of the specific clause providing 
for their $100,000 as an amendment in the loan bill; this 
was eventually done, and the amendment remained there 
until the passage of the bill, thus becoming a part of the 
law governing the Louisiana Purchase Exposition. 

A brief description of the manner in which the loan 
bill was brought before Congress may be of interest : — 

There is, in every session, what is called an Urgent 
Deficiency Bill, the object of which is to take care of 
the different interests which are likely to fail through 
inadequate appropriation. The opposition to including 
the item of the loan for the Exposition Company was 
found to be so powerful that it could not be inserted in 
the bill when it was sent to the House. This Urgent 
Deficiency Bill passed the House and went to the Senate. 
There the loan amendment was inserted, and finally 
our amendment was added also. It passed the Senate, 
and was then returned to the House, in order that that 
body might pass upon the amendments which the Sen- 


ate had added. In the meetings before the two Appro- 
priation Committees, as well as in the discussion in the 
two Houses, the arguments for and against were very 
forcibly expressed. One reason advanced as to why 
the loan should be made was because other governments 
had been invited to participate, and the Company 
should be enabled to open its gates in a manner befitting 
a national host. Among the main objections set forth at 
length were: 1st, the alleged unconstitutionality of the 
whole proceeding; 2d, the inadequacy of the security. 
All those speaking against the measure affected a total 
disbelief that the receipts would be suflBcient to enable 
the Company to return the money advanced, and, of 
course, a spasm of economy nearly rent these states- 
men in twain. 

The Exposition management was not spared. More 
than one speaker waxed eloquent over what he declared 
was wanton waste of the greatest amount of money ever 
intrusted to an Exposition management, which wanton 
waste had made the Exposition Company bankrupt 
and again at the doors of the Treasury begging for 
funds. Those working against the bill triumphantly 
quoted the following clause, which is Section 24 of the 
original bill, and which authorized the creation of the 
Exposition. It reads : — 

That nothing in this Act shall be so construed as to 
create any liability of the United States, direct or indirect, 
for any debt or obligation incurred, nor for any claim 
for aid or pecuniary assistance from Congress or the 
United States in support or liquidation of the debts or 
obligations created by said Commission. 


After postponement and delays, the bill of the 11th of 
February passed the House 172 to 115, — 57 majority; 
on the 15th it went back to the Senate and was promptly 

The whole amount appropriated for the use of the 
Board of Lady Managers was placed in their custody 
by the Secretary of the Treasury, and its expenditure has 
been most carefully guarded. With this money at its 
command, it has always stood ready to assist the Expo- 
sition Company in every way possible, and the report of 
the Treasurer will show that the disbursements have 
been made in a manner befitting the greatest of all 
World's Fairs. 

Respectfully submitted. 

c. b. buchwalter. 

Mary Phelps Montgomery. 

Sallie D. Coleman. 


All of the members of the Board of Lady Managers 
were inspired at an early period of their oflBcial existence 
with a desire to accomplish something that would be of 
lasting benefit to the interests of women, and one of the 
first committees to be appointed by the President was 
on Woman's Work, which seemed to offer great scope for 
the development of earnest efforts and good judgment; 
they realized that upon their activity would greatly 
depend the extent to which women in this country and 
of the world at large would participate, directly or 
indirectly, in making this Exposition the most beneficent 
for women that had been, or could be, attained. 


Specific action was restricted, however, by the Exposi- 
tion Company, and the Committee on Woman's Work 
was not enabled to give an international character to 
its work. The life of its organization was in no way 
aflPected, but the Board was dependent upon the Expo- 
sition Company for funds to expend upon any work it 
wished to undertake. Although the members had been 
led to believe that whatever action they might take in 
regard to sending a representative of the Board abroad 
was legitimate Exposition work, and would be ratified 
by the National Commission and Local Company, their 
request was denied by the Executive Committee of the 
Company, and they were not permitted to extend their 
work on the broad lines for which they had hoped. 

An effort was made by two members of the Committee 
on Woman's Work, in conference with the heads of the 
Departments in Washington, to secure information as 
to the details of the work performed by women in the 
various Government Departments, and their salaries. 
This matter was brought before the Board at its session 
held February 18, 1903, and it was believed by the 
members that if such a statement could be obtained, it 
would be helpful in the development and organization 
of woman's work in connection with the Board. As all 
arrangements had previously been planned in Washing- 
ton to have the work done if desired by the Board, the 
Secretary was instructed to write to Hon. John R. Proc- 
tor, President United States Civil Service Commission, 
and ask for statistics. In order to procure the data from 
all the Departments, it was necessary to have an execu- 
tive order from The President. Mr. Proctor made this 
request, and President Roosevelt graciously issued the 
following : — 



To the Heads of Departments, — The Board of 
Lady Managers of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition 
desires a statement prepared, showing the work per- 
formed by women in the Departments, together with 
their official designations, salaries, etc. It is requested 
that so far as it will not inconvenience public work, such 
information may be supplied. 

Theodore Roosevelt. 

White House, March 21, 1903. 

The occupations in which women are now engaged in 
the Departments, where their duties range from those 
involving mere manual labor to skilled professional 
service, represent many of the lines in which women 
are now so active everywhere. The salaries vary from 
$240 to $1800 per annum. 

It is believed that the citation of a few examples of 
the high positions of importance and responsibility now 
held by women, compiled for the information of the 
Board of Lady Managers, may be a source of encourage- 
ment, by showing what natural ability, combined with 
determination and industry, may accomplish. The 
following memoranda have been taken at random from 
but four of the Departments : — 


Miss went into the service in 1893, and was de- 
tailed to assist the Secretary of State, who was engaged 
in negotiating reciprocity treaties. She served in the 


capacity of confidential clerk to four Secretaries and one 
Assistant Secretary of State. Served as stenographer and 
typewriter in the Consular Bureau of the Department 
of State, and was later confidential stenographer to the 
Third Assistant Secretary of State, and assisted in the 
preparation of the correspondence with the Alaska 
Boundary Question. 

Another was appointed as a temporary clerk for 
the purpose of introducing the book-typewriter for re- 
cording the correspondence of the Department which 
formerly had been done by hand; after installing the 
book-typewriter and bringing the Diplomatic Notes 
and Instructions up to date, she was detailed as steno- 
grapher and typewriter to the Chief Clerk of the De- 
partment ; her duties in the oflBce of the Chief Clerk 
required her to be familiar with the work of the 
Bureaus of the Department, and the many intricate 
questions constantly presented to the Chief Clerk's 
Office; she was required to have expert knowledge of 
the cipher used in the Department and a considerable 
part of her time was employed in enciphering and 
deciphering telegrams sent from and received by the 

One young woman was detailed for three months to 
serve as stenographer and typewriter to the American 
Commission at The Hague in the Arbitration between 
the United States and Mexico, where she assisted in 
taking stenographic report of the sessions before the 
arbitral court. 

Miss , appointed under the Civil Service Rules, 

was in the Bureau of Foreign Commerce, where her 
duties required her to prepare the Consular Reports 




for publication, translate extracts from foreign com- 
mercial newspapers, etc. 

A clerk was appointed in the Recorder of Deeds' 
Office, but resigned to accept an appointment in the 
Department of State. Her work at first was in the Dip- 
lomatic Bureau where she was engaged in paeparing 
papers for signature, translating French, Italian, and 
Spanish; engrossing treaties, proclamations, drafting 
maps, pen and ink sketches, etc. Later she was detailed 
to the Bureau of Indexes and Archives, where she was 
employed in recording the Diplomatic Notes and In- 
structions of the Department on the book-typewriter. 


Mrs. held a law desk in the General Land 

Office and decided many of the difficult problems con- 
nected with the deeds and patents of land on the frontier. 
Was first appointed in the Government Printing Office 
at $48 per month, and later appointed in the Pension 
Office at an increased salary, where her duties were 
copying pension certificates and notifying pensioners 
of the allowance of their pensions. Upon her second 
promotion, the work and pay being unsatisfactory to 
her, she was, at her own request, transferred to the 
Railroad Division of the General Land Office. Her 
duties were to copy railroad decisions, and the work 
being merely routine clerical work she took up type- 
writing, hoping to advance herself thereby. This 
caused her to be transferred to the Contest Division, 
and later she was assigned to a desk requiring original 
work, and her duties were to promulgate decisions of the 


Department. From this time on the grade of her work 
was raised until she was promoted to $1400, by which 
time she had become famihar with the entire work of 
the Division. She soon found that a knowledge of the 
law of Congress disposing of the public domain and 
familiarity with the rules of practice and decisions of the 
General Land Office and of the Department alone 
were not sufficient to enable her to perform her work 
in a manner satisfactory to herself, however satisfactory 
to the Department, and she, therefore, took up a regular 
four years' law course and graduated with credit to her- 
self and her college. 

How satisfactorily she does her work is shown by the 
fact that out of sixty appeals from her decisions rendered 
during a period of six months, — decisions involving 
thousands of dollars, — only one was reversed and 
one modified, and this because of new matter being 
filed after the decisions were rendered by her. 

Mrs. also enjoys the distinction of holding a 

law desk in the General Land Office, having been trans- 
ferred to it from the Census Office, where she had been 
dealing with mathematical problems. It was found 
that a $1600 clerk was back in his work with 300 cases 
which it was necessary to have adjudicated. The bring- 
ing of this work up to date was assigned to her. Prior 
to this she had written a few decisions. She was at first 
appalled at the decree, but went bravely to work with a 
determination to succeed. How well she succeeded can 
be ascertained by the records of the Office. Later she 
was transferred at her own request from the Public 
Land Division to the Contest, or Law Division. Her 
experience gained in the Land Office taught her how 


to adjudicate contest cases, and she was often required 
to bring up work of the principal law examiners when in 

Miss was assigned to duty on Board of Pen- 
sion Appeals to typewrite decisions for signature of 
the Assistant Secretary, and act as his stenographer. 
Afterwards transferred to Patents and Miscellaneous 
Division of the Secretary's Office : Duties — steno- 
graphy and typewriting; indexing; in charge of issuing 
authorities for open market purchases to the Geological 
Survey and to Howard University, and issuance of 
permits for admission to the Government Hospital for 
the Insane, and to Freedmen's Hospital and Asylum; 
assistant in abstracting various reports to be embodied 
in the Secretary's annual report to the President. A 
knowledge of law was of considerable assistance in the 
work of the Division, and after entering the Govern- 
ment service she took a three years' course in the Wash- 
ington College of Law and was admitted to the Bar of 
the Supreme Court of the District of Columbia. 


The Library of Congress employs 135 women in 
a force of 302 persons. The salaries range from $1500 
to $360 a year, and they are employed in almost all the 
Divisions. None of them, however, rate as laborers. 

At $1500 there is one woman at work in the Cata- 
logue Division as an expert reviser of printed catalogue 
cards and proof-reader. At $1400 three women serve 
as assistant readers of catalogue cards and proof-readers 
in the Catalogue Division, and another is the chief re- 
viser in the Record Division of the Copyright Office. 


At $1200 there are eleven women employees. Of 
these, five are in the Copyright Office as translators, 
indexers, and cataloguers; five are in the Catalogue 
Division as cataloguers of the first class; and one is in 
charge of the Reading Room for the Blind. 


One clerk of class 3, salary $1600, prepares corre- 
spondence for the signature of the Postmaster General 
and the Chief Clerk; reads and refers the Congressional 
and Departmental mail addressed to the Postmaster 
General; assists in the compilation of the estimates of 
appropriations for the Department and postal service; 
also assists in the compilation of the Postal Guides; in 
charge of the distribution of the Postal Laws and Regu- 
lations and of the Postal Guide throughout the postal 
service; stenographer and typewriter. 

One clerk of class 2, salary $1400, to whom is as- 
signed the duty of preparing the three lists of post offices 
published each year in the Official Postal Guide, and 
lists of changes in post offices published each month in 
the supplemental postal guide. 

One clerk, assigned to the claims division. Duties: 
Preparation of correspondence connected with claims 
of postmasters for reimbursement for losses occasioned 
by burglary, fire, or other unavoidable casualty, and for 
losses of money order and postal funds in transit to 


One woman skilled as draughtsman, at $1400, pre- 
pares the guides for the colors printed on the post route 


maps, and has supervision of the map sheets transmitted 
from and to the photoHthographer. 

Three other women draughtsmen note the reported 
changes in the postal service of a group of States, revise 
the post route map sheets of those States, and correct 
monthly the corresponding diagram maps for the use 
of officers and clerks of the Post Office Department. 


One clerk, salary $1600, on work relating to ocean 
mail contract service; occasional translating, indexing, 
and briefing. 

One clerk, salary $1400, on work relating to domestic 
statistics in connection with the international service; 
stating accounts of steamship companies for the sea 
conveyance of mails; occasional translating, and as- 
sisting in general correspondence. 

One clerk, salary $1400,' "corresponding clerk," 
whose duties consist in the examination of applications 
for establishment of star and steamboat service ; changes 
therein; preparation of cases to be submitted for de- 
cision; preparation of orders and correspondence for 
official signature. 

In most of the examinations which women pass in 
order to be appointed in the Departments, technical 
skill is required, as shown by the following list of 
subjects : — 

Artist Scientific assistant 

Assistant microscopist Book type-writer 

Clerk-stenographer and Typewriter Kindergarten teacher 

Computer in Coast and Geodetic Survey Scientific aid 

Counter, Government paper mill Zoological clerk 


Industrial teacher Internal Revenue service 

Trained nurse Philippine service 

Register and Receiver's Clerk Topographic draughtsman 

Compositor Assistant to book-binder 

Public Document Cataloguer Music teacher 
Assistant Ethnological librarian 

The following is a compilation and table of com- 
parison showing the number of men and women em- 
ployed in the various departments at Washington, D. C. 
The figures are based upon the official Register of the 
United States, July 1, 1901, Volume 1. Since that 
date there have been hundreds of new appointees of 
both sexes in all the respective departments and bureaus 
below enumerated, and the accurate figures down to 
the present time will show an increase accordingly : — 

Men Women 
Executive oflace (the President's) 
Department of State 
Treasury Department 
War Department 
Navy Department 
Post OflBce Department 
Department of Interior 
Department of Justice 
Department of Agriculture 
Government Printing Office 
Department of Labor 
U. S. Commissioner of Fish and Fisheries 
Interstate Commerce Commission 
Civil Service Commission 
Industrial Commission 
Smithsonian Institution 
Bureau of American Republics 

The first woman employed in the Government serv- 


































ice was appointed by General Spinner, of the Treasury 
Department, about 1864. 

On July 1, 1901, the clerical force in the executive 
departments in Washington was approximately a force 
of 27,605 employees of both sexes. Out of this number 
there were 7496 women. The time, at this ratio of 
increase of the respective sexes, when the gentler sex 
is to overcome and pass the men is merely a matter of 
arithmetic to those who wish to ascertain these interest- 
ing data. The above table shows that the women have 
between one fourth and one third of the appointments 
in Washington, D. C. 

Mrs. Mary Phelps Montgomery, the Chairman of 
the Committee on Woman's Work, read her first report 
of the work of that Committee at the meeting of the 
Board held Tuesday, April 28, 1903, and a copy was 
transmitted to the National Commission. At the ses- 
sion held on December 17, 18, 19, 1903, the following 
letter was received and read by the Secretary ; — 

St. Louis, U. S. A., Dec. 16, 1903. 

Mrs. Frederick Hanger, 

Secretary of the Board of Lady Managers, 
Administration Building, City. 

Dear Mrs. Hanger, — Replying to your esteemed 
favor of the 14th inst., transmitting a copy of report of 
Committee on Woman's Work, which was adopted by 
your Board at a meeting held in April, 1903, you are 
advised that on motion the same was approved to the 
extent that the report prescribes the scope of your pro- 
posed field of activity. 

The Commission at its session on the 15th inst. 
adopted the following resolution : — 


Moved and seconded that in so far as the report 
of Committee on Woman's Work prescribes the Hne of 
work for the Board of Lady Managers, the same stands 
approved by the Commission. 

Motion prevailed. 

Agreeable to your request the report has been for- 
warded to the Exposition Company for its action, with 
a copy of the resolution passed by the Commission. 
Very respectfully, 
(Signed) Thomas H. Carter, President. 

Extracts from this report are embodied in the final 
Report of the Committee on Woman's Work, which is 
as follows : — 

September 30, 1902, the women appointed by the 
National Commission as Lady Managers for the Louis- 
iana Purchase Exposition were called by the National 
Commission to meet in St. Louis and effect an organi- 
zation of the Board of Lady Managers. At this meet- 
ing the Board of Lady Managers was organized and 
Mrs. James L. Blair elected President. 

The first permanent committee appointed by the 
new President was a Committee on Woman's Work. 
The ladies appointed on this committee were: Miss 
Anna L. Dawes, Miss Helen Gould, Mrs. Marcus 
Daly, Mrs. M. H. de Young, and Mrs. Mary Phelps 
Montgomery, Chairman. Two members of this com- 
mittee were not present at the meeting. The President 
of the Board impressed upon the Chairman of the Com- 
mittee that a large share of the Board's work must of 


necessity be performed by the Committee on Woman's 
Work. The Chairman of the Committee asked the 
President of the National Commission for special in- 
structions in regard to the plan and scope of the work 
of the Board of Lady Managers. The President of the 
National Commission replied that the Board of Lady 
Managers must outline their own policy and perform 
their own work to their best judgment. There was no 
work performed by the Committee on Woman's Work 
at this meeting. 

The second meeting of the Board of Lady Managers 
was held in New York City, November 17, 1902. The 
Chairman of the Committee on Woman's Work asked 
to have added to this Committee Mrs. John M. Hol- 
combe, Mrs. Edward L. Buch waiter, Mrs. Daniel 
Manning, and Mrs. Richard Knott. The Chairman of 
the Committee called a meeting at that time, to which 
call only Miss Anna L. Dawes and Mrs. Daniel Man- 
ning responded. At this second meeting of the Board 
of Lady Managers in New York, the President of the 
Board instructed the Committee on Woman's Work to 
proceed to St. Louis not later than March, and there 
receive instructions from the National Commission in 
regard to the line of work they should take up at the 
Louisiana Purchase Exposition. It became apparent 
at this meeting that it would be necessary to specialize 
the work of the Board of Lady Managers, thus relieving 
the Committee on Woman's Work of much respons- 
ibility and labor. 

The Chairman, with Mrs. Daniel Manning, as mem- 
bers of the Committee on Woman's Work, spent Janu- 
ary, 1903, in the City of Washington, and during their 


stay endeavored to acquaint themselves with the work 
performed by women in each and every vocation in Hfe. 

In accordance with the instructions of the President, 
Mrs. Blair, at the meeting held on November 17, the 
Committee on Woman's Work met at the Southern 
Hotel, in St. Louis, March 10, at 11 o'clock, Mrs. 
Montgomery, Chairman. There were present beside the 
Chairman, Mrs. Manning, Mrs. Holcombe, and Mrs. 
Buchwalter, three members being unavoidably pre- 
vented from coming, viz.: Miss Gould, Miss Dawes, 
and Mrs. Knott. 

The interest that this Committee felt in developing 
on broad lines their part in the Exposition is shown in 
the following extracts taken from my report, which was 
not read, however, until the meeting of the Board held 
April 28, 1903: — 

According to appointment, the Committee on Wo- 
man's Work met the Executive Committee of the Ex- 
position Company at the Laclede Building, March 11, 
1903. Mr. Corwin H. Spencer, Acting, and first Vice- 
President, and Chairman of the Executive Committee, 
presided, and stated: "These ladies are here, gentle- 
men, upon my invitation, and have some matters they 
wish to discuss with you." 

Mrs. Montgomery, the Chairman of the Committee 
on Woman's Work, then said : — 

Ever since we became members of the Board of 
Lady Managers we have been somewhat in the dark 
as to what we could and might do, to contribute to the 
success of this great Exposition, and we thought per- 
haps if we came and talked to you gentlemen, upon the 
ground, that you could " throw us a little light." We, of 




course, want to work in harmony with everything that 
has already been outhned, and we feel that we are a 
very weak body; but we want to add our efforts to 
those of the officers of this Exposition, and we came 
to ask you to please tell us how we can help you, and to 
instruct us upon the line which we are to take up. We 
feel that the women of this country have become a 
very great factor, but we also feel that the time has 
passed when we are to have a separate exhibit of what 
women can do, and we thought perhaps in some way 
we might be able to work in unison with the Executive 
Committee, and the various other committees of the 

Several subjects were brought up by members of the 
Committee on Woman's Work, such as the organiza- 
tions of the country, the congresses at this Exposition, 
the dates of meetings, and provision for the care of the 
women in attendance. It was suggested by a member 
of the Committee that in the largest audience that the 
Exposition would have the majority would be women. 
The Company had already taken steps to provide a 
place of meeting, so arranged that meetings could be 
held without admission fee. 

At this meeting a motion was made and carried by 
the Executive Committee : — 

That the Director of Exhibits, Mr. Skiff, be in- 
structed to formulate a programme, suggesting the way 
in which the Board of Lady Managers can assist in 
inducing Congresses to come to the Exposition. 

The Chairman of the Committee on Woman's Work 
then called attention to the fact that almost the first 
thing done after the organization of that committee 


was to ask that immoral dances be excluded from the 
Exposition, to which no reply had been received. Dur- 
ing the discussion which followed, Mr. Stevens read 
copy from his records, showing that a letter had been 
sent by him to the President of the Board of Lady 
Managers, reading as follows : — 

Madam President, — I am directed by the Execu- 
tive Committee to reply to your letter conveying the 
resolution adopted by the Board of Lady Managers 
on the subject of concessions. The resolution was duly 
referred by the Executive Committee to the Director 
of Concessions and the Committee on Concessions, with 
request for careful consideration. The report of the 
Director and the Committee on Concessions has been 
received. The Director and the Committee express 
the belief that under the conditions imposed in all the 
contracts the concessions will be so regulated as to 
render it impossible to present any amusement that 
can be classed as indecent or improper. 
Very respectfully, 
(Signed) Walter B. Stevens, Secretary. 

. The Committee on Woman's Work then stated to the 
Executive Committee that this letter had never been 
read before the Board at their meeting. 

The matter was then considered of sending several 
members of the Board of Lady Managers abroad to 
exploit Woman's Work and to excite an interest in Wo- 
men's Congresses throughout the world. The Chair- 
man stated that she had a letter from Mr. Francis say- 
ing he would send one with certain conditions, and the 


Committee wanted to know if that decision was final, 
and what the action of the Executive Committee would 
be on that point. It was suggested that three women 
from the Board should be sent abroad, one from the East, 
one from the West, and one from the Middle States, and 
the Chairman of the Executive Committee said that, if 
agreeable to the ladies, that Committee would have the 
matter taken up as soon as President Francis returned. 
The Executive Committee was assured that if it would 
outline a program by which the Board of Lady Managers 
could render assistance to this great Exposition, they 
would be very glad; they wanted to help do what the 
heads of the Exposition had laid out to be done, and if 
there was anything that women could do, let them do it. 
The meeting then adjourned, and the Committee on 
Woman's Work met with Mr. SkifiF, the Director of 
Exhibits. In response to an inquiry in regard to the 
question whether his committee had taken the initiative 
in regard to Educational and International Congresses, 
Mr. Skiff replied: — 

The Exposition simply patronizes and assists, with- 
out the expenditure of money, these stated Congresses 
and Conventions. Those bodies already organized are, 
in a hospitable way, invited here, and their Executive 
Management is aided, more or less, in a Hall in which 
they can meet a Committee to receive them, but they 
conduct their own conventions. 

Now the International Congresses are an entirely 
different thing. They are patronized by the Exposition. 
An appropriation of $150,000 has been made for that 
purpose. Dr. Simon Newcomb is president of the Con- 


gress. There is no race or sex in a universal exposition. 
It is the productive use of man, as a unit. We have had 
great difficulty in convincing the scientific people that 
so great a thing should come from so western a point. 
We are going to do a very fine thing in a very large vray. 
The Delegates will be selected and all expenses paid 
from their homes and return, and whatever product 
of their thought they present here at these congresses 
will be bound and fixed in type. I cannot say we are 
working on any plan — it is developed. The Congress 
is my idea. I am the Director of Exhibits, and it did 
not seem proper for the Director of Exhibits officially 
to approve the proceedings and the signatures of an 
office of an International Congress. So I suggested that 
Director Rogers report to President Francis, so that I 
use President Francis's name. In the mean time, I have 
been appointed a member of the Advisory Board, on 
account of my position as a Director of the Institute in 
Chicago. There is no opportunity for organizations to 
participate in that International Congress. There you 
come in, as individuals ; but man or woman, if they are 
great, will be invited. It is all one Congress; it will 
only last one week. We have not selected the exact 
date. It occupies a week; it is divided into sections. 
Some days, in the Congressional Hall, there may be 25 
or 30 sections, all working at the same time on different 
subjects. It is a magnificent programme. Meetings of 
these stated organizations are entirely different. The only 
point about meetings of these clubs and organizations 
is, that whether they are officered by men or women, 
or both, that some one, in behalf of the Exposition, 
must make their way as easy as possible for them and 
see that days do not collide. 


A member of the Committee made the request that 
some provision should be made for the care of trained 
nurses at the Exposition, and Mr. Skiff stated that the 
War Department was contemplating a Field Hospital. 
" They want two things. I do not know what the out- 
come will be. If you ladies could proceed sufficiently to 
get these ladies interested in the trained nurse idea, — 
to offer the services of a certain number of ' change ' 
nurses (you understand, double the number so that they 
can change), I have no doubt that Dr. Laidley will be 
glad to avail of their services." 

In answer to the questions as to the time the jurors 
would be appointed, and whether he had a list of the 
things on which women are to be appointed, and how 
long before they would be known, Mr. Skiff replied : — 

The jurors will be appointed the first week of the 
Exposition, and the list of things on which women are 
to be appointed will depend on whether the work is 
done in whole or in part by female labor. We will know 
as soon as we get a catalogue. We cannot tell what the 
exhibits will be until they are exhibits. The pamphlet 
of classification will be of invaluable assistance to you, 
ladies, in your work. The jurors are to be paid $7 a 
day and traveling expenses. 

In response to the inquiry whether the Board should 
not begin to look out for the women that would be 
capable for that sort of work, Mr. Skiff said : — 

They will develop. There are 108 classes; a Com- 
mittee on each class would be 1200 jurors. We are not 


working women's exhibits up any more than men's. It 
takes care of itself. We do not specially promote, except 
in this way: An officer of a department, if he under- 
stands his work, is given a classification. That is his 
Bible. He makes up his mind what is possible to do in 
the way of an exhibit. They build up an exhibit. In 
that way they find it necessary to touch what we call 
individual promotion, on their broad lines. For in- 
stance, in Education, — deaf, dumb, and blind: charity, 
philanthropy, and education of mind; conveyance of 
thought. Social Economy : the Model City. Machinery : 
that class of machinery that is most ingenious. Elec- 
tricity: electro-therapeutics, electro-magnetism. Trans- 
portation: aeronautics, Santos Dumont, etc. Forestry, 
fish culture, etc. They can add, and on broad lines 
develop, the highest type of the condition of the times. 

Replying to the question whether an exhibit of laces 
by a woman could be insured, Mr. Skiff stated, "We 
have no money for insurance; we have no people to 
go on bond; she is an individual exhibitor, and must 
get in her own exhibit in a general way." 

On the following day, March 12, I received from 
Mr. Stevens the following letter, accompanied by a 
Record of 1903 Conventions of Organizations com- 
posed of Women : — 

St. Louis, U. S. A., March 13, 1903. 

Madam, — In pursuance of the conference held by 
your Committee with the Executive Committee of the 
Exposition, the 11th inst., the Acting President, Mr. 
Spencer, directs me to send to you the accompanying 


list of conventions and delegate meetings of women to 
be held in the near future. It is desired to obtain action 
by these bodies the coming year to meet in St. Louis 
during 1904. The Acting President instructs me to say 
that if your Committee or the Board of Lady Managers 
will assist in obtaining such action it will be highly ap- 

The Exposition management, with a view to en- 
courage the holding of conventions and congresses, has 
arranged to have several halls, the use of which can be 
given to conventions without cost to them. Two or three 
convention halls will be so located with approaches as 
to enable delegates to the conventions to reach them 
without passing through the gates of the Exposition. 
It is also the purpose to afford hall room free to such 
bodies as may desire to hold meetings downtown. 

The Acting President directs me to say further, that 
from a very thorough canvass made of the City and 
from information in the possession of the Exposition 
management, it is believed that good accommodations 
can be assured at reasonable rates during the Exposi- 
tion. It is the intention of the Exposition management 
to maintain an information service which will enable 
delegates to secure accommodations by mail previous to 
their arrival here. 

In other ways the Exposition management will en- 
deavor to make the holding of conventions a prominent 
and satisfactory feature of the World's Fair. If the 
Board of Lady Managers will join in the invitation to 
these bodies of women to hold their 1904 conventions 
at St. Louis the Board can help very materially. If the 
members of the Board of Lady Managers can attend 



some of these gatherings of 1903, and by personal effort 
and representation assist in bringing the conventions 
here the following year, the Management will be 
pleased to have them do so. 

Very respectfully, 
(Signed) W. B. Stevens, Secretary. 

Mrs. Mary Phelps Montgomery. 


International Congress of Nurses, New York City. 

International Board of Women and Y. M. C. A. Conference, Cleveland, O. 

Daughters of Liberty National Council, 

Daughters of St. George, 

Daughters of Veterans National Convention, 

Ladies' Aid Society of the United States, 

P. R. O. Sisterhood Supreme, 

Ladies' United Veteran Legion National Convention, 

National Council of Women, 

Woman's Foreign Missionary Society, 

National League of Women Workers, 

Womens' and Young Womens' Christian Association, 

National Congress of Mothers, Detroit, Mich., 

Daughters of the Revolution, General Society, 

King's Daughters and Sons, 

Knights and Ladies of Honor, 

Knights and Ladies of Security, 

International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union, 

P. E. C. Sisterhood, 

Spanish American War Nurses, 

United Daughters of the Confederacy, 

Woman's Christian Temperance Union, 

Woman's Relief Corps, 

Council of Jewish Women, 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

Columbus, O. 

Cleveland, O. 

Providence, R. I. 

St. Louis, Mo. 

Brooklyn, N. Y. 

New York City. 

Chicago, m. 

Syracuse, N. Y. 

St. Louis, Mo. 

Riverton, N. J. 

New York City. 

St. Lou: 
St. Lou 
St. Lou 
St. Lou 
St. Lou 
St. Lou 
St. Lou 
St. Lou 
St. Lou 
St. Lou 

s. Mo. 
s. Mo. 
s. Mo. 
s. Mo. 
s. Mo. 
s, Mo. 
s, Mo. 

s. Mo. 



National American Woman Suffrage Association, New Orleans, La. 

Ancient Sons and Daughters of Jerusalem, Kansas City, Mo. 

Ladies of the Maccabees, Port Huron, Mich. 

In a letter from Dr. Howard J. Rogers, in charge of 
Congresses, which will be appended to this report, he 

says : — 

I beg to state that, in my opinion, the only feasible 
way is for the Secretary of the Board of Lady Managers, 
acting in behalf of the Board, to communicate with 
the Secretaries of the various womens' organizations, 
such as Federation of Clubs, etc. 

Our Committee suggests that a separate Committee 
be formed to take these Congresses and other womens' 
organizations in hand, and make it their duty to arrange 
for dates. We would also suggest that a local com- 
mittee of leading club women of the city of St. Louis be 
appointed to act in harmony and in unison with this 
Committee of Congresses from the Board of Lady 

I herewith submit copies of letters from Mr. Skiff 
and Mr. Rogers : — 

St. Loms, U. S. A., March 27, 1903. 

Mrs. Mary Phelps Montgomery, 
3642 Delmar Avenue, 
St. Louis, Missouri. 
Dear Madam, — I have the honor to acknowledge 
your favor of March 21, which has been noted. I beg 
to inform you in accordance with the instructions of the 
Executive Committee that the Director of Exhibits for- 


mulate a program suggesting how the Board of Lady 
Managers can assist the Exposition Company in obtain- 
ing Congresses of Women to meet in St. Louis, I referred 
the matter to the Chief of Congresses, who has made a 
report in which I concur, and I respectfully submit 
it for your information and assistance. 
I have the honor to be. 

Very respectfully yours, ~-^ 
(Signed) F. J. V. Skiff, 

Director of Exhibits. 

March 24, 1903. 

Hon. F. J. V. Skiff, 

Director of Exhibits. 

Dear Sir, — Replying to your communication of 
March 23, in reference to the Director of Exhibits 
"formulating a programme suggesting how the Board 
of Lady Managers can assist in obtaining Congresses of 
Women to meet in St. Louis," I beg to state that in my 
opinion the only feasible way is for the Secretary of the 
Board of Lady Managers, acting in behalf of the Board, 
to communicate with the secretaries of the various 
womens' organizations, such as the Federation of 
Womens' Clubs, Daughters of the American Revolu- 
tion, Colonial Dames of America, United Daughters 
of Confederacy, Young Women's Christian Association, 
Ladies' Catholic Benevolent Association, United States 
Daughters of 1812, and to second the invitation given 
by the Exposition to meet in this city in 1904, assuring 
them their active cooperation in the matter of obtain- 
ing halls, accommpdations, and other matters. 

The Daughters of the American Revolution, and the 







Federation of Women's Clubs have already decided to 
meet in this city. I return the letter as requested. 
Very respectfully yours, 
(Signed) Howard J. Rogers. 

In the resolution adopted by the Louisiana Purchase 
Exposition Commission in session assembled at the 
city of New York, the 7th day of February, 1902, cer- 
tain rules were made governing the Board of Lady 
Managers. The first one recites the power given by 
Congress to this Board of Lady Managers to appoint 
"one member of all committees authorized to award 
prizes for such exhibits as may have been produced in 
whole or in part by female labor." 

The Committee on Woman's Work would suggest : — 

First, — That our Board make due preparation for 
the intelligent selection of one member of all committees 
authorized to award prizes for such exhibits as may 
have been produced in whole or in part by female 
labor; and that we request from the Local Executive 
Committee a list of all work presented for competition 
before the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, produced in 
whole or in part by female labor. 

Under the resolutions of the Louisiana Purchase 
Exposition of February 7, 1902, Second, — We are to 
"exercise general supervisory control over such fea- 
tures of the Exposition as may be specially devoted to 
Woman's Work." 

This resolution is so vague in its phraseology that we 
are unable to outline just what we may be permitted 
to do, and the Chairman wishes to call the attention of 


this Board to the fact that one of the subjects which we 
were instructed to take up before the Local Executive 
Committee was in regard to a resolution passed by this 
Board at its first meeting on September 30, 1902, re- 
garding indecent and immoral dancing. We were in- 
structed by the Board of Lady Managers to inquire 
what action had been taken in regard to this resolution, 
and were informed that it was acted upon immediately 
and the Company's attorney was instructed to make 
the contracts in the Midway Plaisance so as to exclude 
immoral and indecent dancing. 

The third resolution, that we were "to take part in 
the ceremonies connected with the dedication of the 
buildings of the Exposition, and in oflBcial functions in 
which women may be invited to participate, and in any 
other functions, upon the request of the Company and 

From the very gracious manner in which this Board 
of Lady Managers has been provided for and permitted 
to participate in the opening ceremonies of the Exposi- 
tion, it would appear that the Government, Commission 
and Local Company will see that we are properly cared 
for on all future occasions. 

Fourth, — That we confer and advise with the oJBB- 
cers and chiefs of the Exposition, on the progress being 
made from time to time in exciting the interest and 
enlisting the cooperation of women in the several de- 
partments, and to appoint all committees necessary 
to carry out the purpose, and to procure informa- 
tion on the extent of woman's participation in the 

Fifth, — That we encourage the presentation of ex- 


hibits by women, by correspondence, advertising^ or 
such other means as the Company may approve. 

Sixth, — That we collect statistics of woman's work 
in connection with the Exposition for publication. 

Seventh, — That we encourage by correspondence, 
or otherwise, attendance at the Exposition, of societies 
and associations of women, and the holding of conven- 
tions, congresses, and other meetings of women. 

Eighth, — That we maintain within the grounds dur- 
ing the period of the Exposition an organization for the 
relief of women and children who may be found in need 
of aid, comfort, or special protection. 

Ninth, — That we receive and officially entertain 
women when requested so to do by the Exposition Com- 
pany and the Commission. 

Tenth, — That we commission members of the Board, 
or others, with the approval of the Commission and the 
Company, to travel in the interest of the Exposition, 
either at home or abroad. 

Eleventh, — That we provide for the constant attend- 
ance by rotation of at least three members of the Board 
at the Exposition Grounds from April 30 to December 
1, 1904. 

Twelfth, — That we issue such bulletins from time 
to time as the Company and the Commission may 
approve, for the special information of women, and 
the exploitation of their contributions to the success 
of the Exposition. 

After our Board had adjourned and gone to their 
homes the Chairman called upon President Carter, of 
the National Commission, and had with him a most 


interesting talk in regard to Woman's Work, and he 
promised to furnish the Chairman extracts from their 
minutes, containing such suggestions on the plan and 
scope of Woman's Work, in connection with the Expo- 
sition; and from these extracts our Committee has 
outlined for this Board the work which may be done 
by the Board of Lady Managers, following in many 
instances the Commission's suggestions verbatim. 

This Committee desires to return its thanks for the 
courteous manner in which they were received by the 
Local Executive Committee, and for the assurance of 
aid in any work which they might undertake. They 
also desire to thank the National Commission for its 
kind reception, advice and suggestions on the plan of 
Woman's Work. 

The Board of Lady Managers, pursuant to a call, 
met in the city of St. Louis, April 28, 1903, and, as has 
already been stated, the Chairman read before the 
Board the report from which the above' extracts are 
taken, on the work of the Committee on Woman's 
Work performed in St. Louis. The President of the 
Board of Lady Managers at this April meeting created 
several new committees, viz., an Executive Committee, 
an Entertainment Committee, a Legislative Committee, 
and a Committee for a Day Nursery, or Creche. The 
creating of these committees practically took from the 
hands of the Committee on Woman's Work, all special 

A meeting of the Board of Lady Managers was 
called in St. Louis on December 15, 1903; at this meet- 
ing it became necessary to elect a new President of the 


Board, and conditions had so changed that it became 
necessary to add several new committees to those al- 
ready formed, one being the Committee on Awards, 
further to develop the work of the Board of Lady 

The only money the Board of Lady Managers had 
ever received to conduct its work was an appropria- 
tion of $3000 from the Treasury of the Louisiana 
Purchase Exposition, part of which had been expended, 
so that all work of the Board of Lady Managers was 
absolutely suspended for the want of funds. It became 
necessary for the Legislative Committee to proceed to 
Washington to secure money to carry out their plans. 
The result of the labors of the Legislative Committee 
has been ably told in the report of the Chairman of 
that Committee, Mrs. Edward L. Buch waiter. 

During the December meeting, and after the ad- 
journment of the Board, the work which seemed of the 
most vital interest, and the one which lay nearest to the 
hearts of every member of the Board of Lady Managers, 
was the construction, equipment, and management of a 
creche or day nursery. The Chairman of the Committee 
on Woman's Work remained with the President of the 
Board in St. Louis for ten days after the adjournment of 
the Board, meeting the Executive Committee of the 
Louisiana Purchase Exposition, endeavoring to arrange 
for the construction and equipment of a day nursery. 
The Exposition Company assured this Committee that 
they would construct for the Lady Managers a building 
that would cost $30,000 and give $5000 toward equip- 
ment, and that the day nursery would be self-sustaining, 
with the possibility of an income above the expense 
payable to the Exposition Company. 


It now became evident that if the Board of Lady 
Managers was to have a day nursery, it must give 
up the idea of a purely philanthropic institution and 
enter the field as money-makers. 

After two weeks of patient labor, it was made ap- 
parent that if a day nursery was built, all expenses for 
furnishing and maintaining it must be paid for out of 
the funds appropriated by Congress for the use of the 
Board of Lady Managers in their various works. The 
President of the Board of Lady Managers oflFered to 
contribute $15,000 for the furnishing and maintenance 
of this day nursery out of the $100,000 set aside for the 
use of the Lady Managers, if the Exposition Company 
would free them from any further financial liability. 
This the Exposition Company refused to do. 

The Exposition Company further informed us they 
had already let a concession for a Model Playground 
which would practically cover the work to be performed 
by the day nursery and that this concession had agreed 
to care for each child at the rate of twenty-five cents per 
day, and that the Board of Lady Managers could not 
conduct a day nursery without charging a fee for the 
care of each child. Thus a day nursery was taken out 
of the hands of the Committee on Woman's Work. 

As Chairman of this Committee, I cannot bring this 
report to a close without expressing the very deep and 
heart-felt disappointment of the Committee on Wo- 
man's Work, and I may add the President and every 
member of the Board of Lady Managers, that circum- 
stances over which we had no control forced us to 
abandon this cherished project of a model day nursery. 

As the duties of the Board of Lady Managers be- 


came more apparent and diversified, and the work 
evolved and developed, it became necessary to special- 
ize. The work of the Committee on Woman's Work 
ceased to be performed by a large committee under this 
name, but was carried on to the close of the Exposition 
by committees composed of the various members of the 

In closing this report, it would appear at first that 
the Committee on Woman's Work stood for very little 
and had done very little toward the success of the Board 
of Lady Managers. However, this Committee, under 
other names, did successfully perform a large amount 
of philanthropic and social work. 

There were on the Exposition Grounds State Build- 
ings constructed by forty-four States. These buildings 
were designed as club-houses for the citizens of the 
various States and were provided with rest-rooms, social 
halls, and other rooms to contribute to the comfort of 
and promote sociability among the people of the various 
States visiting the Exposition. At the beginning of the 
Exposition it seemed one of the duties of the Board of 
Lady Managers would be to provide a hall for the 
meeting of women visiting the Exposition, and also 
a rest-room, but this want was provided for by each 
individual State. 

Mary Phelps Montgomery, Chairman. 

Margaret Daly. 

Anna L. Dawes. 

M. K. de Young. 

c. b. buchwalter. 

Jennie Gillmore Knott. 

Emily S. G. Holcombe. 



Miss Anna L. Dawes, Chairman of the Committee 
on Foreign Relations, read the first report of that Com- 
mittee at the meeting of the Board held in the Admin- 
istration Building on March 2, 1904. 

The final Report of that Committee is as follows: — 

The Committee on Foreign Affairs was appointed 
by Mrs. James L. Blair, the first President of the 
Board, during the meeting at the time of the formal 
opening of the Exposition on May 2, 1903. This com- 
mittee consisted of Mrs. Daniel Manning, Chairman, 
Miss Dawes, Mrs. Knott, Miss Gould, Mrs. Holcombe, 
Mrs. Montgomery, Mrs. Moores, and Mrs. von May- 

On December 17, 1903, Mrs. Manning having been 
elected President of the Board after the resignation of 
Mrs. Blair, Miss Dawes became Chairman of the Com- 
mittee and has so continued. 

In pursuance of a policy inaugurated by Mrs. 
Manning, it was determined to send a circular to the 
women of the different countries of Europe, calling 
their attention to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 
inviting their cooperation and presence, and offering 
to do what we could toward that end. At the request 
of the present Chairman, Mrs. Manning conferred 
with the officers of the Exposition as to what had al- 
ready been done, and with the State Department in 
Washington as to what could be done, and prepared the 
circular appended ; the State Department sending it out 
to its officials in the following countries : — 


Berne, Switzerland, Madrid, Spain, 

Bucharest, Roumania, Stockholm, Sweden, 

Belgrade, Servia, St. Petersburg, Russia, 

Brussels, Belgium, Sofia, Bulgaria, 

Constantinople, Turkey, Vienna, Austria, 

Copenhagen, Denmark, London, England, 

Athens, Greece, The Hague, Netherlands, 

Berlin, Germany, I-gypt' 

Havana, Cuba, Mexico, 

Lisbon, Portugal, China, 

Rome, Italy, Japan, 

Paris, France, Dominion of Canada. 

The cordial cooperation of the Government, through 
the State Department, was a source of great satisfac- 
tion to the Committee, giving as it did, not only cur- 
rency to the circular, but putting the weight and dignity 
of the Government behind our action. For this, and 
for the extremely valuable circular so finely adapted to 
the need, and so eloquently setting forth the objects 
of the Exposition, and the aims and desires of this 
Board, we are, as in so many other things, indebted to 
the experience and ability of Mrs. Manning. 

To His Excellency, 

The Minister of Foreign Affairs, of . 

Excellency, — By an Act of Congress of the 
United States, the Board of Lady Managers of the 
Louisiana Purchase Exposition is directed to join with 
the other constituted authorities in commemorating the 
great event in the history of the United States when, a 
century ago, there was added to its territory a new field 
which to-day is the home of many people, and where 
earnest and sincere women, as well as men, are labori- 


ously working out the problem of the progress of hu- 
manity and the advancement of the race. 

No single individual, no one people, no separate 
country can supply that full knowledge from which 
may be fixed the condition of mankind, its development 
in the industries, the arts, the sciences, at the commence- 
ment of the 20th century. The entire world must con- 
tribute to this knowledge and therefore the entire world 
has been invited to take part in this universal exposi- 
tion and to bring hither the fruit of the lands, the pro- 
ducts of other soils, the articles manufactured by foreign 
hands and evidences of the achievements of the intellect 
and intelligence in the higher fields of thought. 

While in gathering these things there is no distinc- 
tion made between the product of man's hand and of 
woman's hand, nevertheless, it is the peculiar function 
of this Board to act as the channel through which wo- 
men, as individuals, and as organizations, may be 
brought into immediate communication with the Ex- 
position at St. Louis. 

It is, therefore, with cordiality and eagerness that 
we invite the women of your country to join with us in 
presenting to the world the information of the condi- 
tion, opportunities, development, and promises of their 
sex in their own country, and to exhibit at the Exposi- 
tion specimens of their productions and examples of their 
activities, manual and mental, scientific and artistic. 

And coupled with this invitation, we would express 
the hope that we may be permitted to be of personal 
service to such w^omen as may visit the Exposition in 
person, or to give special attention to the exhibits of 
such as may not be able to come. 


Requesting your Excellency's good oflBces to the end 
that due publicity may be given to the invitation in 
order that it may come to the knowledge of the women 
of the country, we beg to assure you of the high con- 
sideration with which we are. 

Your obedient servant, 
(Signed) Mary Margaretta Manning, 

The Honorable, the Secretary of State. 

Sir, — I have the honor to transmit herewith invi- 
tations which the Board of Lady Managers of the 
Louisiana Purchase Exposition have addressed to the 
women of foreign countries, through the respective 
diplomatic envoys, with a view to promoting women's 
interests at the Exposition. 

In view of the indorsement which the Congress of 
the United States has given to the Exposition, and the 
recognition it has accorded to the Board of Lady 
Managers, I should be pleased, were it found consistent 
with practice, for the invitations to be delivered by the 
diplomatic envoy of the United States, and if they were 
instructed to give them their support. 

I have the honor to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 
(Signed) M. Margaretta Manning. 

Mrs. M. M. Manning, 

President Board of Lady Managers, 
Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 
The Arlington, Washington, D. C. 
Madam, — I have to acknowledge receipt of your 
letter of the 14th instant transmitting invitations which 


the Board of Lady Managers of the Louisiana Pur- 
chase Exposition have addressed to the women of 
foreign countries, through the Ministers for Foreign 
Affairs, with a view to promoting women's interests at 
the Exposition. 

In reply I have to inform you that these invitations, 
with suitable instructions, have been sent to-day to the 
diplomatic representatives of the United States in the 
countries mentioned by you. I am, Madam, 
Your obedient servant, 
(Signed) Francis B. Loomis, 

Acting Secretary. 

Letters were received from most of these countries 
expressing their gratification and cordial cooperation 
in the matter, a fact which was evidenced by many let- 
ters from associations and individuals with reference 
to exhibits, etc. For instance a committee of women at 
Berne, through its secretary, sent a very remarkable 
consignment of pamphlets relating to the condition 
and work — philanthropic and otherwise — of the 
women of that nation. These were intrusted to the 
Department of Social Economy. Also in Italy a na- 
tional committee of women of great consequence was 

Circumstances prevented any further initiative on 
the part of this Committee, outside the limits of the 
Exposition itself. Within those limits it has, in common 
with the whole Board, done much for the Exposition, 
and for the country, by social courtesies extended to 
the representatives of foreign lands, and received from 
them — a service which has been performed by the Board 


with success and dignity, and with great value to the 
interests of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition. 

Anna L. Dawes. 

Emily S. G. Holcombe. 

Mary Phelps Montgomery. 

Annie McLean Moores. 

December, 1904. 


ReaflBrming the motion already made on February 16, 
1903, providing that the furnishing of the Building of 
the Board of Lady Managers be under the supervision 
of the President of the Board, on March 4, 1904, it was 
moved that Mrs. Daniel Manning be made active 
Chairman of the House-Furnishing Committee, and 
select her own Committee. This motion being carried, 
it was also decided that the Committee on House- 
Furnishing be limited to the expenditure of the sum of 
$20,000 for furnishing the building. The report of this 
Committee is as follows : — 

To the Board of Lady Managers of the Louisiana 
Purchase Exposition. 

Ladies, — The President of the Board of Lady Man- 
agers having been elected active Chairman of the 
House-Furnishing Committee, with power to select 
her own Committee, named Mrs. Mary Phelps Mont- 
gomery and Mrs. John M. Holcombe as the other 

At the same meeting of the Board at which the 


Chairman was named, the sum of $20,000 was fixed as 
the maximum amount that might be expended for 
house-furnishing purposes by the Committee. This 
sum was to cover all expenditures for electric wiring 
and fixtures, electric bells, push-buttons, and annunc- 
iators; tinting of walls and staining of floors; water 
connections, filters, water heaters, bath-tubs, sinks, 
etc.; all wooden partitions in dormitories; window 
shades, screens, and awnings; arrangements for but- 
ler's pantry, rugs, carpets, matting, and all floor cov- 
ering ; furniture, glass, china, and kitchen utensils ; 
table and bed linen, blankets, — indeed, every expend- 
iture attending the fitting out and appointing of the 

The Committee was fortunate in securing for part 
of the work the men that were employed by the Gov- 
ernment on its building, and had been brought from 
Washington for that purpose; these men could con- 
tract for a longer stay at better rates than were ob- 
tainable in St. Louis. The tremendous advance in the 
price of labor about this time led the Committee to be 
most cautious in its expenditures, not knowing the ex- 
tent of the demands that might be made upon the 
fund before the building itself was completed. President 
Francis, in his address to the Board, on December 15, 
1903, has already given some of the difficulties experi- 
enced by the Exposition Company on the question of 
the cost of labor up to that date. By the time of the 
opening of the Exposition the members of this Com- 
mittee had to meet even greater prices, as, instead of 
time and one-half for overtime, the demands of the 
workmen had risen to double time for overtime. This 


involved paying $1,50 per hour instead of seventy-five 
cents for certain kinds of work necessary to be com- 
pleted by Opening Day. 

Most of the furniture, rugs, carpets, curtains, glass, 
and china were purchased in New York City, but some 
interesting pieces of antique furniture were obtained 
by one of the Committee in Connecticut, while others 
were secured in Albany, N. Y. 

Material and substantial aid was rendered the mem- 
bers of the Committee by many generous gifts and loans 
which added greatly to the attractiveness and comfort 
of the building. 

Mrs. Roosevelt, wife of the President, by request, very 
graciously presented a large photograph of herself, which 
was the only picture hung in the salon of the building 
of the Board of Lady Managers. 

The Committee is but echoing the sentiments of 
the entire Board in expressing its thanks and appre- 
ciation to the following firms for their handsome 
and useful gifts, all of which were most acceptably 
used by the members of the Board and their 
guests : — 

Cheney Brothers, of New York and Connecticut, 
most generously contributed one of their handsome 
pieces of silk damask for the covering of the walls of the 
salon; also the material for the curtains for that room, 
yellow silk curtains for the tea-room, and pink silk 
curtains and furniture covering for the President's 
room. The thanks of the Board cannot be too warmly 
expressed to this firm for their generosity in aiding the 


Board in such a substantial manner, and thus beauti- 
fying its house by their gifts. 

Steinway & Company, New York City, — manu- 
factured for our use and loaned to us one of the 
handsomest pianos they could make, with beautiful 
Louis XV decorations in ormolu, which was used on 
state occasions or when some well-known singer or 
pianist was available. It was the admiration of all 

Chickering & Company, New York City, — loaned 
one of their beautiful pianos, which was placed in the 
large hall in which was held informal meetings and 

Tiffany & Company, New York City, — presented a 
silver-plated tea-service, consisting of tray, hot-water 
kettle, with lamp, teapot, coffee-pot, hot-milk pitcher, 
sugar-bowl, cream-pitcher, slop-bowl. 

This set was used every afternoon on the tea-table 
and was greatly admired by all who were the guests of 
the Board at its informal afternoon teas. 

Black, Starr & Frost, New York City, — gift of 
four silver-plated candlesticks of attractive, antique 
colonial design; also a set of four plated trays. 

Gorham Manufacturing Company, New York City, 
— gift of two silver-plated candelabra of beautiful 
design, which were in constant use at the afternoon teas 
and on the private table of the Board, and also at the 
more formal dinners and entertainments where lights 
were used on the tables. 

Laycock & Company of Indianapolis, Ind., gener- 
ously loaned, at a nominal price, the brass beds and 
mattresses used in the building. 


Macy & Company, New York City, — gift of ten 
dozen plates, cups and saucers, of Limoges china, 
specially decorated and of unique design, that were 
very handsome and in constant use by the Board. 

Higgins & Seiter, New York City, — gift of set of 
creaming-dishes of most delicate pattern in handsome 
white case. 

International Nickel Company, New York City, — 
gift of chafing-dishes, tea-kettles and trays, of espe- 
cially neat design, and most useful. 

Mrs. Eva B. Leete, Guilford, Conn., — loaned a 
rare antique sideboard, of semi-circular shape, and 
a "pie-crust" table. 

Mr. Armand Hawkins, New Orleans, La., — 
generously loaned many interesting, historic and use- 
ful pieces of furniture, which were used in the building 
of the Board of Lady Managers during the Exposition 

The Standard Scales & Fixtures Company, of St. 
Louis, Mo., — loaned the useful and necessary ad- 
junct to housekeeping, — an unusually fine and large 
McCray glass-lined refrigerator, which was in use from 
the first days of the Exposition period until a few days 
after the close, and an aid to the comfort of all who 
resided in the building and their guests. 

The gifts and loans to the Board were most gratify- 
ing to the Committee, as they were an evidence of a 
strong interest in the Board of Lady Managers and 
its building. 

It was, undoubtedly, not the intention of the Board, 
when limiting the expenditure of this Committee to 
$20,000, that this sum should cover an outlay beyond 


the time the building was pronounced finished and 
furnished, and ready for the occupancy of the Board 
at the opening of the Exposition. The total expend- 
iture given below, however, includes all additions 
to furniture, repairs both to building and furniture, 
and the replacing of broken articles during the entire 
Exposition period. Such was the careful management 
of the Committee that it not only succeeded in 
accomplishing the payment of all bills contracted by 
it prior to the opening, but at the close of the Ex- 
position was still within the limit originally imposed, 
of $20,000. 

The Exposition Company agreed to pay $5000 for 
the furnishing of the building of the Board of Lady 
Managers, $5000 for its maintenance, and $5000 for 

The demands upon the Exposition Company at 
this time, however, were so great, that the Board de- 
cided, at the meeting held on July 14, 1904, to take 
up any outstanding bills, and passed the following 
resolution : — 

Resolved, — That the Board of Lady Managers 
assume the payment of the now unpaid bills for enter- 
taining and furniture for the Board that have been 
turned over to the Exposition Company, for which the 
Exposition Company had pledged a certain sum. 

The following is an itemized account of amount ex- 
pended for the finishing and furnishing of the building 
of the Board of Lady Managers : — 


{Appointed October 18, 1901) 





Bills paid by the 
Exposition Co. 

Bills paid from the 



Bills paid from the 
$100,000 Appro- 

Furniture, china, 
linen, expressage 

Tinting walls, stain- 
ing floors, plumb- 
ing, heating ap- 
paratus, electric 
wiring, awnings, 
screens, partitions, 
etc., etc. . . . 







Total paid by Exposition Co., $2,213.31 

" " from $3000 appropriation 716.55 

" " " $100,000 " 13,955.97 

Total amount expended for House-Furnishing 


Respectfully submitted. 
Mart Margaretta Manning, Chairman. 
Mart Phelps Montgomert. 
Emilt S. G. Holcombe. 


The Committee on Women's Congresses was created 
by the first President of the Board of Lady Managers, 
in April, 1903. Its aim was to be instrumental in bring- 
ing together representative women of this and foreign 
countries, either as organized bodies or as individuals, 


in order that by discussion and comparison of all social, 
educational, charitable, and industrial aspirations, and 
an interchange of thought on important questions re- 
lating to the welfare of women, the higher, intellectual, 
moral, and physical plane that has already been es- 
tablished might not only continue to be maintained, 
but mutual interests be renewed and encouraged. 
They hoped thus to foster a better understanding of 
the aims of women of the different countries, and, by 
strengthening their common cause and making possible 
uniformity of action, promote the advancement of 
women everywhere. 

It was further desired, by thus bringing together 
distinguished women from all parts of the world in- 
terested in mental development and philanthropic and 
reformatory work, to review not only the old, but add 
the new record of the historical progress of women to 
date, to learn not only the various achievements now 
being accomplished by the women of the world in all 
phases of life at the present time, but ascertain the 
objective height now sought or thought to be attainable 
for them in each country. 

The Committee felt that this Exposition would af- 
ford an opportunity to consider carefully humanitarian 
interests, and record the close connection of women to 
the most important issues, their struggles, and their 
possibilities. The encouraging stimulus that would be 
given to them by the expression of their mutual hope 
of the ultimate success of earnest endeavor for their 
advancement, must inevitably result in aiding the 
elevation of women and the improvement of the 
conditions under which they live, and upon which 


not only their own welfare, but that of the nation largely 

It was, therefore, a source of great regret to the mem- 
bers of the Committee that their desire to carry out 
these commendable plans was doomed, in great meas- 
ure, not to be realized, because, while the "suggestion" 
was again approved by the Exposition Company, no 
means were provided for carrying out the work, and 
its own appropriation was not received by the Board 
in time to be made available. 

The following is the final Report of the Committee on 
Women's Congresses : — 

To the President and Board of Lady Managers of the 
Louisiana Purchase Exposition. 

Ladies, — The Committee on Women's Congresses 
was appointed by Mrs. Blair, April 19, 1903, and was 
composed of Mrs. Andrews, Mrs. Hanger, and Mrs. 
Buchwalter, who was, by unanimous vote, made chair- 
man December 18, of that year. 

When the Committee was first created, it asked 
for a letter of instruction from the Exposition Board. 
This letter was received together with a list of women's 
organizations which had been compiled in the office of 
the Exposition Company. Communications were at 
once sent to each of these associations; also to others 
selected by the Committee, in all more than fifty. In 
addition to extending an invitation to hold its meeting at 
St. Louis during the World's Fair, each organization 
was told that a place of meeting would be provided, and 
that all possible aid would be given in making prelimi- 


nary arrangements by a Board of Information which 
would be ready to supply any assistance necessary in 
preparing for the meeting. 

Up to this time it had been hoped that it would 
be possible to inaugurate a series of meetings of wo- 
men's associations which would be congresses in more 
than name. The Committee, however, was confronted 
with the serious limitation of no treasury from which 
to draw. At the last meeting of the Board during the 
incumbency of the first President, a committee had 
been appointed with Mrs, Manning as chairman, which 
was to ask Congress for one hundred thousand dollars 
for the use of the Board of Lady Managers. It was 
hoped that this matter might be brought to the atten- 
tion of Congress at the special session in the fall of 

1903, but the delay caused by the necessity of electing 
a new President retarded all the work of the Board. 
Upon the election of Mrs. Manning to the Presidency, 
a new Legislative Committee was appointed, which 
unfortunately was not able to report the success of its 
mission of securing the appropriation until March 1, 

1904, by which time all the organizations had perfected 
their plans for that year; in consequence of which, all 
idea of congresses was reluctantly abandoned. 

In the mean time responses were received from 
many of the larger organizations, some of which said 
that experience had shown that the interest of their 
stated meetings suflFered when they were held where 
there were so many counter attractions as were offered 
by a great exposition; others did not respond at all. 
Of those who accepted and held meetings in St. Louis 
in the season of 1904, were the various fraternal organi- 


zations of women, the General Federation of Women's 
Clubs, the National Mothers' Congress, the Interna- 
tional Council, Council of Jewish Women, the Daugh- 
ters of the American Revolution, National Society of 
the Colonial Dames of America, the United Daughters 
of the Confederacy, the P. E. O.'s, the Woman's Chris- 
tian Temperance Union, the Women's Relief Corps 
of the Grand Army of the Republic, and the Association 
of Collegiate Alumnae. 

All the meetings which were held at the Louisiana 
Purchase Exposition were largely attended and noted 
for the enthusiasm of the members and the great in- 
terest taken in the objects represented by the respective 

Respectfully submitted. 


M. M, Andrews. 
Frances Marion Hanger. 




Pursuant to adjournment, on March 5, 1904, a meet- 
ing of the Board of Lady Managers was called by the 
President for April 28, 1904, to enable the members to 
be present at the Opening Exercises of the Louisiana 
Purchase Exposition, which were to take place on 
April 30, of that year. 

The Board was in session until May 9, during which 
time many matters of importance were considered. 
Letters were read from organizations, reports received 
from Chairmen of Committees, and jurors appointed; 
on May 6, a resolution, presented by Mrs. Holcombe 
and amended by Miss Egan, was adopted, by which 
the President of the Board was made active Chairman 
of the Executive, Entertainment, and Ceremonies 
Committees, and full plans were made for the conduct 
of the affairs of the Board during the coming months 
of the Exposition period. 

Twenty-one of the twenty-two members were present, 
and on the morning of April 30, they met and pro- 
ceeded in a body to the Administration Building, 
where they joined the President and Directors of the 
Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company, the members 
of the National Commission, and representatives from 
foreign countries; entering carriages they were driven 
to the Peace Monument where seats were reserved for 
them. After the close of the interesting exercises offi- 


daily opening the Exposition, 3000 invited guests ad- 
journed to the Varied Industries Building where lunch- 
eon was served. After a briUiant display of fireworks 
in the evening at the Stadium, the Board of Lady 
Managers entertained a distinguished company at 
dinner, which closed the festivities of Opening Day. 


At the meeting of the Board held at the opening of 
the Exposition (April 28 to May 9), discussion was had 
as to whether a midsummer meeting of the Board 
should be called. Arrangements had been made that 
a Rotating Committee (composed of the members of 
the Board, who were to serve in rotation), should be 
in constant attendance to discharge such duties as 
might arise from time to time in the conduct of the 
affairs of the Board of Lady Managers. As it was 
the opinion of the members present, however, that 
undoubtedly new business would arise between the 
beginning and end of the Exposition term that should 
be submitted to the entire Board for consideration, it 
was moved and seconded that a meeting should be held 
July 14, 1904. 

The meeting was called as provided for, and, at the 
first session, resolutions were passed relating to the 
payment of outstanding bills that had been turned 
over to the Exposition Company, and the donation of 
$5000 to the Model Play- Ground, Nursery, and Lost 
Children Work, both of which are quoted in full in the 
reports of the respective committees. A new Secretary 
was appointed, and reports received from the Treasurer 


and chairmen of all committees. The Chairman of the 
House Committee reported that the building was open 
to the public every day, and that it had been arranged 
that tea should be served each afternoon from four to 
six o'clock. Letters from organizations and suggestions 
from individuals were read and acted upon. The Board 
adjourned after a two days' session, not expecting to 
meet again until November, just prior to the close of 
the Exposition. 


The ninth meeting of the Board was called Septem- 
ber 20, 1904. This was a special meeting called for the 
purpose of reconfirming the Departmental Jurors, as is 
set forth in the final Report of the Chairman of the 
Committee of Awards. 

An exposition must of necessity prove educational. 
The Director of Exhibits of the Louisiana Purchase Ex- 
position said: "The opportunity afforded for study and 
comparison of the various productions of human genius 
and activity classified and shown in detail, the finished 
product beside the methods and processes by which 
articles are produced, the vast systems of machinery 
in operation, and the skilled artisans occupied in diffi- 
cult and intricate employments or native industries, 
representing accurately and in detail, the latest develop- 
ment of the various arts and manufactures, makes it 
possible for not only the student to acquire knowledge, 
but each exhibitor may learn something from every 
other exhibitor in his class which may be to his ad- 
vantage, and which may lead to the improvement of 


(Appointed October 18, 1901) 
chaihMjVN of committee of awards 


that which he produces, whether it be in the domain of 
art or manufacture, at home or abroad. The measure 
of the value of an International Exposition is deter- 
mined by the number of important countries repre- 
sented by exhibits, the characteristics and compre- 
hensive nature of these exhibits, or the excellence in 
quality according to the standards of the countries from 
which they come. An exposition affords the greatest 
opportunity that manufacturers and producers of a 
nation have to increase their export trade by display- 
ing their samples and products before the eyes of 
foreign people whose markets they seek." Exhibitors 
are commercial and non-commercial; the commercial 
exhibitor has as his chief object the advertisement of 
his business, and consequent increase in the sale of his 
goods by means of his display, and the possible receipt 
of an award which may prove valuable in future 
exploitation of his products; the non-commercial ex- 
hibitor has but the moral satisfaction of receiving the 
tangible assurance of the excellence of his work as 
represented by the award. 

Though woman's work enters into almost all manu- 
factured articles, its proportion in some is very small, 
and at the Columbian Exposition, where it was esti- 
mated that women had a share in nearly three hundred 
and fifty industries, it was finally agreed between the 
Board of Control and the Board of Lady Managers that 
the best method upon which to base the proportion of 
women on the juries would be to give them represen- 
tation according to the amount of work done by women 
on articles to be judged in each department of the clas- 
sification. This was a very satisfactory arrangement to 


that Board, inasmuch as the manufacturers exhibiting 
were asked on the appHcation-blanks furnished them 
when they apphed for space, "Was the work upon this 
exhibit done wholly or in part by women ?" An aflBrm- 
ative answer entitled the Board of Lady Managers to 
membership on the Jury of Awards, giving it a ma- 
jority in any department where women were especially 
active, and a minority, or total exclusion, where they had 
contributed little, or nothing, to the department, which 
would seem a most equitable method. 

The impossibility of ascertaining these facts greatly 
affected the right of representation of the Board of Lady 
Managers of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition on the 
Juries of Awards. 

President Francis, in his address to the Board on 
March 2, 1904, spoke as follows : — 

I wish to say again — I think I have made this 
statement to you before — that when we started the 
organization of the Exposition the question of separate 
fields of exhibit of competition was suggested and ad- 
vanced, but the stronger view was presented, as we be- 
lieved by the stronger women, that there should be no 
contest between individual members of the different 
sexes, but that the work of each should be shown — 
that if women had not arrived at that stage and 
made advancement which permitted them to com- 
pete with men's work, they had advanced but little. 
Therefore, we did not think of making any separate 
classification for the exhibitions of women's work — 
they came in under the same classification as men. 
On most of the lines of work upon which women have 


entered, they are holding their own, if not in every 

While there was formerly something to be said on 
each side of the question of separate exhibits, the ex- 
tent to which women now enter into all departments of 
industrial and professional activities, renders it not only 
difficult, but in some instances almost impossible, to 
make a separate exhibit of the part they perform. It is 
true, if women were to-day eliminated from the employ- 
ments in which they are now engaged and relegated to 
those of forty years ago, the exhibits of the nature of 
man's work would be in no wise affected, and women 
have not sufficiently taken the initiative (from lack of 
capital, and adverse competition), in establishing large 
manufacturing plants to be enabled by these means to 
make exhibits on similar lines; but where women now 
work by the side of, and the quality of their mental and 
manual labor competes satisfactorily with, that of men, 
it is now their right to receive unqualified recognition 
and consideration as an economic factor, and their work 
should not only be accorded the consideration and re- 
spect it deserves, but insure to them the receipt of equal 
compensation for equal services performed. 

It is to be regretted that the example of other expo- 
sitions was not followed in requiring manufacturers to 
indicate by means of some device placed upon their 
exhibit, what proportion or percentage was "in whole or 
in part the work of women," and it is urged that this be 
done in all future expositions, large and small, that all 
who are interested in this matter may ascertain the 
special industries in which women share, and which 


portion of them they perform, and such record be avail- 
able at all times as statistical information. 

In selecting the jurors, it is desirable and necessary 
that the most careful discrimination be used in order to 
secure the best and most skillful women to represent 
each special department, and those well versed in the 
requisite technical knowledge. 

At the meeting of the Board of Lady Managers of 
the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, held April 29, 1903, 
the following resolution was offered by Mrs. Daniel 
Manning, and accepted by the Board : — 

Resolved, First, — It shall be the duty of the Com- 
mittee on Awards of the Board of Lady Managers of 
the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, through its Chair- 
man or otherwise, to ascertain definitely in regard to 
every exhibit in the Exposition, whether or not the labor 
of women was employed in its production. 

Second, — It shall be the duty of this Committee to 
take any and all action to secure and appoint competent 
Jurors of Awards in every class and group of the classi- 
fication where woman's labor has been engaged in the 
production of any articles exhibited therein. 

A copy of this resolution, under date of May 2, was 
sent to the Secretary of the Local Company, and the 
following reply received : — 

St. Louis, May 26, 1903, 

Madam President, — I am directed by President 
Francis to inform you that the resolutions adopted by 
the Board at a called meeting on May 2, 1903, with 
reference to participation in the award system, has 


been reported upon by the Director of Exhibits, Mr. 
Skiff, who states that his Division has taken notice of 
the Resolution, and will, in due time, prepare a list of 
those exhibits which are in whole or in part the labor 
of women. 

(Signed) W. B. Stevens, Secretary. 

At a meeting of the Board held in the Administration 
Building March 1, 1904, in response to a call by the 
President for a report from the Committee on Awards, 
Mrs. Hanger, Chairman of the Committee, said : — 

This Committee was named by Mrs. Manning after 
our last meeting as follows: Mrs. Hanger, Mrs. Knott, 
Miss Egan, Mrs. Porter and Mrs. Hunsicker. I hap- 
pened to be here in January and asked Miss Egan to 
go with me to see Mr. Skiff. We waited two or three 
hours and saw Mr. Skiff about fifteen minutes. It had 
been said there were 200 jurors to be appointed, and 
we would only have the appointing of thirty-five or forty 
of them. He assured us that the lists could not be made 
out as the exhibits were not installed. He gave us some 
instructions in regard to the selection of jurors, saying 
that they must stand for intellectual ability; it did not 
matter how many people applied for appointment, we 
must be governed by that. 

I had a letter from Mrs. Manning suggesting that 
I try again; I wrote to Mr. Stevens, and he communi- 
cated with Mr. Skiff, and later repeated to me the same 
thing. We have had quite a number of names suggested 
and I have written to the other members of the Com- 


mittee asking them to come here as soon as the exhibits 
are in place; I hope we can hold that meeting very 
early, but until after that meeting, I do not feel that we 
have anything to report. 

In response to questions from members of the Board 
as to whether Mr. Skiff was to be understood to mean 
that there were but thirty-five or forty things to be ex- 
hibited at the Exposition which were made in whole or 
in part by women, Mrs. Hanger said that Mr. Skiff 
said the Board "would only have the appointing of 
thirty-five or forty women." 

This decision was a source of great disappointment 
to the Board, as it has been shown most conclusively that 
scarcely anything is manufactured that women do not 
at least share in the production or process of its manu- 
facture. The Act of Congress stated that there should 
be appointed by this Board a member of every jury 
judging "any work that may have been produced in 
whole or in part by female labor," and the members 
were averse to an abridgement of the authority vested 
in them by the wording of the Act. 

Expositions are a natural and useful factor to women 
in that by their means new avenues of employment 
that are constantly being opened to them may be col- 
lectively demonstrated, and it can be shown in which of 
these they may share and excel or be most successful, 
and statistics may be compiled showing the proportion 
of wages that women receive for their share of labor 
performed equivalent to that of men, and other helpful 
information and facts procured which are not easily 
ascertained by other means. 


The Departments of Machinery, Electricity, Trans- 
portation Exhibits, Forestry, Mines and Metallurgy, 
Fish and Game, and Physical Culture, were not given 
representation by the Exposition Company on the 
Group Juries appointed by the Board of Lady Mana- 
gers, and while it is undoubtedly true that all of these 
fields have been invaded by women as assistant workers, 
yet evolution and progress in these lines are necessarily 
slow where their opportunities have not been com- 
mensurate with those of men, and more congenial em- 
ployment is undoubtedly afforded in Education, Art, 
Liberal Arts, Manufactures, Agriculture, Horticulture, 
Anthropology, and Social Economy. 

The "Special Rules and Regulations providing for 
an International Jury and Governing the System of 
Making Awards," as applicable to the Board of Lady 
Managers, read as follows : — 

The total number of jurors in the International Jury 
of Awards shall be approximately two per centum of 
the total number of exhibitors, but not in excess of that 
number, and each nation having fifty (50) exhibitors, or 
more, shall be entitled to representation on the Jury. 
The number of jurors for each art or industry, and for 
each nationality represented, shall, as far as practicable, 
be proportional to the number of exhibitors and the 
importance of the exhibits. 

Of this selected body of International Jurors, three 
graded juries will be constituted: One, the general 
organization of group juries; two, department juries; 
three, a superior jury. 


Each Group Jury shall be composed of jurors and 

The Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company shall 
certify to the Board of Lady Managers the numbers of 
groups in which the exhibits have been produced in 
whole, or in part, by female labor; to each of the groups 
so certified the Board of Lady Managers may appoint 
one juror and one alternate to that juror; such ap- 
pointees, when confirmed, shall have the privileges and 
be amenable to the regulations for other jurors and 

Nominations made by Chiefs of Departments, and 
by the Board of Lady Managers, shall be submitted 
to the Director of Exhibits, and when approved he shall 
submit them to the President of the Exposition Com- 

The nomination of Group jurors and alternates, 
when approved by the President of the Exposition, shall 
be transmitted to the President of the Louisiana Pur- 
chase Exposition Commission for the approval of that 

The work of the Group Juries shall begin Septem- 
ber 1, 1904, and shall be completed not later than twenty 
days thereafter. 

Examinations or other work not completed in the 
time specified herein, will be transferred to the Depart- 
ment Jury. 

Each Group Jury shall carefully examine all exhibits 
pertaining to the group to which it has been assigned. 
It shall also consider and pass upon the merits of the 
collaborators whose work may be conspicuous in the 
design, development, or construction of the exhibits. 


{Appointed October 18, 1901) 



The jury shall prepare separate lists, presenting the 
names of such exhibitors as are out of competition; 
awards recommended to exhibitors in order of merit; 
awards recommended to collaborators in order of merit; 
a report giving an account of the most important objects 
exhibited and a general account of the group as a whole. 

Each Department Jury shall be composed of the 
Chairmen and Vice-Chairmen of the Group Juries of 
the respective Departments with one member of the 
Directory of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Com- 
pany, to be named by the President of the Company, 
and one person appointed by the Board of Lady 

Each Department Jury shall complete its organiza- 
tion and begin its work on September 20, 1904. 

The duties of these juries shall be to consider care- 
fully and review the reports of the Group Juries; to 
harmonize any differences that may exist between the 
recommendations of the several Group Juries as to 
awards, and to adjust all awards recommended so that 
they will be consistent with the Rules and Regulations. 

No more than ten days may be devoted to this 
work, and when the awards recommended by the Group 
Juries have been adjusted, the Department Juries shall, 
through the Chiefs of their respective Departments, sub- 
mit their findings to the Director of Exhibits, who 
shall, within five days after the receipt thereof, certify 
the same to the Superior Jury, including such work as 
may have been left incomplete by the Department Jury. 

The officers and members of the Superior Jury shall 
be as follows : President, the President of the Louisiana 
Purchase Exposition Company; First Vice-President, 
the Director of Exhibits; Second Vice-President, a 


citizen of the United States to be named by the Louisi- 
ana Purchase Exposition Commission. The members 
of the Jury shall further consist of the Commissioners- 
General of the nine foreign countries occupying with 
exhibits the largest amount of space in the exhibit 
palaces; the Chairmen and First Vice-Chairmen of the 
Department Juries; the Chiefs of the Exhibit Depart- 
ments ; and one person appointed by the Board of Lady 

The Superior Jury shall determine finally and fully 
the awards to be made to exhibitors and collaborators 
in all cases that are formally presented for its considera- 

For the purpose of installation and review of exhibits 
and the conduct of the system of awards, a classifica- 
tion was adopted which was divided into fifteen de- 
partments, which were divided into 144 groups, which 
in turn were sub-divided into 807 classes. They will 
show that, while many of the groups and classes are 
not wholly suited to the requirements of woman's work, 
yet all products of female labor can be properly classed 
in these departments, and that there are extremely few 
occupations in which man is engaged in which woman 
cannot and does not also work. 

At a meeting held on May 9, 1904, the Committee to 
present nominations for Superior Jury announced the 
names of Mrs. Eliza Eads How, Mrs. Phihp N. Moore, 
Mrs. Thomas N. Niedringhaus, and Miss Mary E. 
Perry. On ballot, the result was the election of Mrs. 
Philip N. Moore, of St. Louis, with Mrs. Eliza Eads 
How, of the same city, as alternate. 


In order to arrive at some conclusion in regard to the 
representation of women at the Louisiana Purchase 
Exposition, and to gain some knowledge of the extent 
of her participation in exhibits, the following questions 
were addressed to the jurors appointed by the Board 
of Lady Managers. They were not designed to be more 
than suggestive, as, of course, in some instances hardly 
more than one or two would apply to a given Depart- 
ment. They were based on the rules and regulations, 
however, by which awards were issued. 

The Department of at the Louisiana Pur- 
chase Exposition, in which you were a Juror in Group 

, contained Groups and Classes 

within the Groups. Can you give an approximate es- 
timate of the proportional number of exhibits by women 
contained in these classes ? 

Please give the nature of the exhibits by women 
(or articles exhibited by them) in your Department, 
Group and Classes. 

Which in your opinion, were the most striking ex- 
hibits by women in your Department ? 

What advancement did they show in the progress of 
women in any special industry, art, science, etc. ? 

What proportion, or approximately, what number, 
of exhibits were installed by foreign women ? 

Was any display made that would lead you to 
think that women were now capable of executing un- 
usual or more creditable work than they accomplished 
eleven years ago (at the time of the Chicago Exposition) 
or at any time in the past.? 

In what way did their work (or exhibits) differ from 
their work (or exhibits) of the past.? 


Would their work, as shown at the Louisiana Pur- 
chase Exposition, where it was placed on equal terms 
of comparison with that of men, prove helpful or sug- 
gestive to those interested in the advancement and success 
of women's work? If so, how? 

Was the work of women as well appreciated when 
placed by the side of that of men ? 

Would the results have been better if their work 
had been separately exhibited? 

If you have attended previous expositions, please com- 
pare the exhibits of the work of women shown in them, 
with those shown at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition. 

Were any manufacturers asked (to your knowledge) 
to state the percentage of woman's work which entered 
into the manufacture of their special exhibits ? 

Were they shown in such manner as to indicate in 
any way, or to enable you to distinguish, which part 
had been performed by women — which by men ? 

In your opinion, what proportion of the work was 
performed by women, as compared with that performed 
by men, in the groups and classes that came under 
your supervision ? 

What proportion of women received awards in your 
group or classes ? 

Was any new or useful or distinctive invention or 
process shown as the work of women, or special work 
of their art or handicraft exhibited in your department ? 
If so, please specify. 

What can you say of the skill and ingenuity dis- 
played in the invention, construction, or application ? 

Were any of the exhibits of women developments of 
original inventions, or an improvement on the work of 
some prior inventor? 


What was the value of the product, process, machine 
or device, as measured by its usefulness or beneficent 
influence on mankind, in its physical, mental, moral 
or educational aspects ? 

What of the merits of the installation as to the in- 
genuity and taste displayed, and its value as an Expo- 
sition attraction? 

Did any new avenues of employment appear to be 
opened for women as shown by their exhibits at the 
Louisiana Purchase Exposition in the arts, sciences, 
industries, etc. ? If so, to what extent ? What is their 
value ? 

In which of these will their work be of the most 
distinct value by reason of the natural adaptability, 
sensitive or artistic temperaments and individual tastes 
of women ? 

In your opinion, what education will best enable 
women to enjoy the wider opportunities awaiting them 
and make their work of the greatest worth, not only to 
themselves but to the world as evidenced by their work 
at the Exposition? 

Remarks: Give any information, or make any 
statement you may think of interest in regard to the 
part taken by women as shown by their work or ex- 
hibits at the Exposition, and the beneficial results 
to be derived by women in general by reason of 
their representation at the Louisiana Purchase Exposi- 


Department A, Education, of which Dr. Howard J. 
Rogers was Chief, comprised 8 groups and 26 classes, 
the Board of Lady Managers being represented in six 
of the eight groups. 

Group 1, Miss Anna Tolman Smith, of the Bureau of 
Education, Washington, D. C, Juror. 
Under the Group heading of "Elementary Educa- 
tion," the four classes into which it was divided, repre- 
sented Kindergarten, Elementary grades. Training 
and certification of teachers, Continuation schools, 
including evening schools, vacation schools, and schools 
for special training. (Legislation, organization, general 
statistics. School supervision and school management. 
Buildings: plans, models; school hygiene. Methods 
of instructions; results obtained.) 

In a letter Miss Smith says : — 

The Chairmanship which I held in the Group Jury 
was that of the committee on the report of the jury 
formed to prepare a survey of the material presented to 
the attention of the Group to serve as an introduction 
to the secretary's minutes. Owing to circumstances the 
committee were unable to work as a whole on the report 
and it became consequently the sole work of the chair- 
man. I mention this fact because it illustrates the 
equality of service as between men and women in the 
Jury of Group 1. 


{Appointed November 10, 1901) 


Miss Smith's report is as follows : — 


To the President and Board of Lady Managers, Louis- 
iana Purchase Exposition. 

Ladies, — With respect to the exhibits at St. Louis 
upon which the Jury on Elementary Education (Group 
1) were appointed to pass judgment, it would be im- 
possible to discriminate between the work of men and 
women as therein illustrated. 

These exhibits comprised first and chiefly the work 
of pupils; second, photographs and models illustrating 
school architecture, school appliances, and school life; 
third, statistical charts and reports pertaining to the 
administrative work of school systems. 

The great bulk of the material in these exhibits 
belonged to the first of the three divisions specified 
above. Since very nearly three fourths of the teachers 
in the public elementary schools of the United States 
are women, it is obvious that the greater proportion 
of the pupils' work exhibited was the direct outcome of 
the efforts of women teachers. 

In the South Atlantic and South Central Divisions of 
our country the proportion of women teachers is much 
smaller than in the whole country; in the divisions 
named they form only a little more than one half the 
whole teaching force, but so far as they were represented 
no diflFerence was made between the work of men and 
women as exhibited in the section here considered, nor 
was there any difference in the mode of estimating the 


The second class of material mentioned, i. e., photo- 
graphic views and models, was largely the work of ex- 
perts, artists and craftsmen, employed for the purpose. 
It would be impossible to determine the relative pro- 
portion of men and women contributing, although it is 
probable that the former were in excess. It should be 
observed, however, that many very interesting devices 
for teaching children, many suggestive modifications 
of kindergarten material and exercises, and many ex- 
cellent photographs showing classes at work, were 
executed by women. The great skill and admirable 
system attained by women teachers in the preparation 
of material for teaching the sciences to children were 
illustrated in a very graphic manner by the exhibits of 
normal schools, such as those of Massachusetts and the 
State Normal School of Rhode Island. 

The third class of 'material named, i. e., that per- 
taining to school administration — chiefly in the form 
of statistical charts and reports — was the work of 
school superintendents and their clerical force, in which 
branch of the school service comparatively few women 
are engaged. 

The mode of installation formed a striking feature 
in the case of many of the systems of public schools 
exhibited at St. Louis. The highest results were achieved 
where the plan of the exhibit had been carefully worked 
out with full regard to aesthetic effect and educational 
significance. In the formation of these plans women 
had very largely participated, and in one instance, 
namely, that of the Minnesota educational exhibit, the 
entire installation was planned and carried to success- 
ful completion by a woman. This exhibit was ranked 


in the first class for the unity of its plan, the complete- 
ness with which it set forth the educational provision in 
every part of the state, and its aesthetic finish. In judg- 
ing of exhibits, the person who planned and organized 
the exhibit was regarded as a collaborator, and to Miss 
S. E. Sirwell, the collaborator in this instance, the high- 
est award allowable was adjudged by the Jury of Group 
1, a distinction which was conferred upon very few 

The exhibit of the public school system of the city of 
St. Louis, which was universally admired, owed its chief 
decorative efiPect to the artistic skill of Miss M. R. 
Garesche, who composed and executed a series of six- 
teen transparent paintings representing a history of edu- 
cation. These pictures formed a succession of brilliant 
panels on the external side of the fa9ade, and for this 
unique work a gold medal was awarded to Miss Garesche. 

Mention should also be made of a very interesting 
series of paintings by Miss Florence Hedleston, of 
Oxford, Miss., representing all the wild flowers of that 
state, an exhibit which excited much attention both for 
its artistic excellence and its usefulness in teaching the 
native flora. 

The exhibit of New York City afforded many strik- 
ing examples of the ingenuity and progressive spirit 
of women teachers. The public school system of this 
city has had marked development on what may be 
called the sociologic or philanthropic side, and in this 
development which was graphically illustrated in the 
educational exhibit, women teachers have borne a very 
important part. It is, however, impossible here to par- 
ticularize as to their work in this respect. 


The external side of the New York City booth in 
the Education Building was utilized for the exhibit 
of the Woman's School of Design. The exhibit con- 
sisted of a remarkable collection of original designs, 
which with one or two exceptions were purchased by 
manufacturing firms as they stood on the wall. Al- 
though this work did not come within the scope of the 
Jury of Group 1, I mention it here to emphasize the 
fact that the exhibits of art schools in the Education 
Building showed very remarkable progress on the part 
of women in the art of designing. 

This survey has been confined almost entirely to 
the exhibits of the United States. It need hardly be 
said that in no foreign country do women play so im- 
portant a part in education, and on account of the 
mode of installation it would have been impossible to 
distinguish between their work and that of men in the 
foreign exhibits. Mention may, however, be made of 
the fact that the exhibits of French industrial schools 
for girls and of the French lycees for girls, which were 
of a very high order, were substantially the work of 
women. In the Swedish section there was a very 
admirable exhibit of secondary schools for girls and 
coeducational schools which had been planned and 
installed by Miss Mathilda Widegren. In the English 
section were shown very remarkable specimens of art 
work in jewelry and silver repouss^ designed and ex- 
ecuted by women students. As the foreign exhibits 
specified did not come under the Jury of Group 1, I 
am unable to report the awards which they received. 

The increasing recognition of the value of women's 
services is indicated by the increase in the proportion 


of women called to serve upon exposition juries. The 
Jury of Group 1 included three women, of whom two 
were foreigners, namely. Miss Elizabeth Fischer, a 
teacher from Halle, Germany, and Miss Mathilda 
Widegren, associate principal of a private school in 
Sweden. These three members were all women of great 
experience in the matters with respect to which they 
were called to judge, and their abilities were most 
cordially and heartily recognized by their colleagues. 
Indeed, in view of the place in education which is now 
accorded to women in our own country and in the 
leading countries of Europe, I should unhesitatingly 
say that it is for the advantage of women and of society 
in general that their work should not be separately 
exhibited, but should rather form an integral part of 
a collective exhibit. This principle, indeed, might not 
apply to certain specialties which have heretofore been 
exclusively or almost exclusively practiced by men, or 
which (like artistic needlework) have a particularly 
feminine character. 

Anna Tolman Smith, 

Member of the International Jury, Group 1. 

Board of Education, 
Washington, D. C. 

As Chairman of the Committee to report on the 
work of the Jury, Miss Smith writes : — 


The material presented for the consideration of the 
jury of Group 1 (Elementary Education) comprised 


on the part of the United States the exhibit of pubhc 
education as organized in thirty-four states and terri- 
tories, in six cities (presented as separate units) and 
in fifteen foreign countries. In number, extent, and 
complexity, these exhibits surpassed all previous col- 
lections of the kind; the separate entries ran up into 
the thousands, representing for the most part such 
important collections as the exhibits of cities, counties, 
and groups of rural schools, all deserving careful at- 

The examination of this material in the brief time 
allowed (twenty days) was a severe task, and would 
have been impossible but for the circumstance that, 
with two exceptions, the exhibits were all placed in 
one building. For the first time in the history of expo- 
sitions, the chief collective activity of civilized peoples 
was honored by an edifice planned and erected for 
itself alone. This concentration of the material under 
the general direction of an experienced and able chief, 
thoroughly familiar with the arrangements and of 
unfailing courtesy and helpfulness, alone brought the 
work assigned the jury of Group 1 within the bounds 
of possible achievement. Their efforts were furthered 
also by the expert qualification of each and every mem- 
ber of the group, by the system and perfect harmony 
in which they worked, and by the exceptional ability 
of their official staff, — Chairman, Dr. E. O. Lyte; Vice- 
Chairman, Mr. B. Buisson (representing the French 
Government); Secretary, Mr. Morales de Los Rios, 
representing the Cuban Government. 

The details of the group organization are shown by 
the minutes of the Secretary, which also present a full 


record of its daily action and findings. It remains here 
only to speak of salient features of this particular division 
of the Exposition, whose effects cannot be indicated nor 
estimated by any system of awards. 

The installations of the various exhibits had been 
carefully planned, and were as a rule effective, and in 
many cases extremely beautiful. The United States 
has made notable progress in this respect since the 
Chicago Exposition of 1893, and even since the Paris 
Exposition in 1900, and in the present Exposition sev- 
eral of our states and cities offer fine models of the 
exhibitors' art. This is the case especially with Mis- 
souri and St. Louis; the latter in particular has real- 
ized the double purpose of challenging popular atten- 
tion and satisfying critical taste. The art of effective 
exposition, whether worked out with noble simplicity 
or rich decorative accessories, requires on the one hand 
intelligent selection and coordination of the material, 
and on the other, skill in the treatment of space and 
artistic elements. No small part of the value of an 
educational exhibit lies in its aesthetic quality, since 
this reveals not less clearly than the methods and re- 
sults of school training the inherent genius of a people. 
This International Exposition has been rich in this 
quality, on account both of the number of different 
nations participating and the care taken by each to 
give distinctive character to its display. This is marked 
in the exhibits of Elementary Education, which in 
nearly all European countries forms a complete whole, 
distinct from other grades and having the definite 
purpose of maintaining an established social order 
or national type through the intellectual, manual, and 


artistic training of the masses. The presentation of ele- 
mentary education as an independent unit indeed well 
accords with the conditions in nearly all countries 
excepting our own. Elsewhere, as a rule, elementary 
education forms a complete system having its separate 
administration, purposes, and ideals. In this respect 
the United States presents a notable contrast to the 
chief countries of the Old World and one strikingly 
illustrated in this Exposition. In our own country, 
education is conceived as an integral process steadily 
developing from the kindergarten to the University; 
to this conception corresponds the sequence of ele- 
mentary and high schools united under a common 
administration and by close scholastic bonds. Hence, 
a measure of violence is done both to elementary and 
secondary education as here organized by the endea- 
vor to view them separately. On the other hand, a por- 
tion of the elementary education of foreign countries, 
notably of France and Germany, does not enter at all 
into the sum total of the impressions recorded by the 
jury of either group because of the social distinctions 
that underlie in those countries the classification of 
schools as elementary and secondary. These anomalous 
conditions affect particularly the classification and 
judgment of the various agencies for the training of 
teachers (that is, Normal Schools, teachers' training- 
colleges and auxiliary agencies, such as normal classes 
in academies or other secondary schools, teachers' in- 
stitutes, etc.). In the chief foreign countries profes- 
sional schools of this kind are easily classified by virtue 
of their administrative relations, but in our own coun- 
try the different orders of pedagogical training merge 


into each other almost imperceptibly, because they are 
all based upon the same fundamental conception of 
the teaching profession. 

It is interesting to note in this connection that 
the exhibit of Great Britain and Ireland has avoided 
all confusion by the selection of the characteristic 
features of particular schools or of processes that have 
worked well in certain communities, or pupil and 
class work of special significance. This mode of ex- 
hibition accords perfectly with the private character 
of a large proportion of the schools of all orders in 
England, and with the local independence throughout 
the Kingdom. It results that this exhibit has greater 
emphasis upon typical and essential things than any 
other in the collection; in this respect it is most nearly 
approached by Massachusetts among our own states. 

The confusion arising from differences in classi- 
fication already referred to, which imply also more 
radical differences in opinion and practice, has led one 
of the most acute minds among our foreign colleagues 
to express the hope that one of the permanent results of 
this Exposition may be an effort toward international 
unity, or at least agreement in respect to classification 
and nomenclature. Undoubtedly, such agreement would 
promote the great purpose of international compari- 
sons which is to enable each nation to benefit by the 
experience of every other. 

In addition to the broad distinctions between na- 
tional systems as here indicated, there are also dis- 
closed by the exhibits striking differences in the spirit 
and methods of instruction. In France the teaching is 
logical and analytical, the stress of pedagogical train- 


ing in that country is upon the treatment of subjects 
and the abiding effects of that training are seen in the 
theses by teachers and by school inspectors (the latter 
all men of professional training), which form a very 
interesting and instructive part of the exhibit of that 
country. The analytical principle is maintained in the 
manual training, which, as shown by the examples 
presented, consists of a graded series of exercises upon 
the elements that enter into simple constructions. Ger- 
many adheres more closely to the authoritative method 
of instruction, a fact plainly shown by the photographs 
of classes in which every child seemed listening with 
breathless attention to the word of the teacher. From 
the photographic displays one would readily infer that 
in our own country the emphasis of class exercises is 
upon the activity of the pupil; in Germany upon the 
personality of the teacher. 

The importance of photographs in an educational 
exhibit was never so manifest as in the present Expo- 
sition. By this means may be shown at a glance the 
equipment of schools and even the actual conduct of 
class instruction, and the mind distracted by the end- 
less succession of written work, drawings, etc., is thus 
reinforced by total impressions or images. This Expo- 
sition surpassed all others in the extent, effectiveness, 
and beauty of the photographic displays and the value 
of the statistical charts presented. So full and graphic 
were these statistical summaries from all the principal 
countries that individual mention would be invidious. 
The jury, however, will never forget the display of 
charts and diagrams by Japan, since they revealed in 
a universal language the status, organization, and won- 





derful progress of education in that country, whose 
effect must otherwise have been lost in the mysteries 
of an unknown tongue. 

Those who recall the Centennial Exposition at Phil- 
adelphia must be struck with the progress made by our 
states and cities and even by the individual colleges 
toward uniform statistical schemes. The impulse to 
this important result came undoubtedly from the U. S. 
Bureau of Education, whose statistical representation 
of education in this country, current and retrospective, is 
one of the most valuable features of the entire exposition. 
As this material, however, is placed in the Government 
Building, its consideration does not come within the 
province of the regular juries. 

By means of the two media, photographs and statis- 
tics, a very complete representation of a school system is 
possible with great economy of space and special regard 
to essential particulars. The extensive exhibits of pupils' 
work from our own schools show remarkable similarity 
in methods and results throughout the country; this 
similarity extends even to the rural schools, which in 
the case of some particular districts present work well 
up to the average of neighboring cities. There are also 
signs that the rage for "newness" has subsided; the 
work shows closer sequence and more systematic treat- 
ment of subjects than that exhibited at Paris. Corre- 
lation, for instance, is not so promiscuously applied, 
but limited to subjects whose relations are obvious, as 
geography and history, etc. 

The impulses toward nature as the inspiring mo- 
tive in art instruction and toward social activities as 
factors in school training have been felt in other coun- 


tries than our own. Germany has replaced the con- 
ventional art instruction by a system based upon the 
study of natural forms, growths, and coloring, and Bel- 
gium presents a remarkable object-lesson in the use of 
local products and industries in a progressive scheme 
of practical instruction. The skill with which Sweden 
has reduced domestic art and Sloyd to pedagogic 
form was already well known in this country, but it 
has excited new interest by its presentation here in 
one of the most admirably systematized and suggest- 
ive exhibits in the collection. 

School architecture forms an impressive feature of 
many of the exhibits. Germany has made a very full 
presentation under this head by means of photographs, 
plans, and complete models. Argentina has an un- 
rivaled collection of photographs showing palatial school 
buildings of noble design and well-planned interiors. In 
this connection may be mentioned a device of a portable 
schoolhouse for use in congested city districts pending 
the erection of permanent buildings. The models shown 
were from St. Louis and Milwaukee. 

The great movements now in progress in our coun- 
try as indicated by the exhibits, are, in the states at 
large, the improvements of the rural schools particu- 
larly by the consolidation of small schools and the 
grading of the resulting central school, as graphically 
shown by Indiana and the creation of township or 
county high schools, as in Pennsylvania and Kansas. 

In cities the most important movements relate to 
the physical development of the young, and the use 
of the school machinery for the benefit of persons be- 
yond the limit of school age by means of evening schools, 


or outside the appointed school hours by means of 
vacation schools and recreation centres. The most 
extensive work along these lines is going on in New York 
City and formed one of the most instructive features of 
the exhibit of this great metropolis. 

A beginning of continuation schools for the people 
is seen also in the county agricultural school included 
in the Wisconsin exhibit. Schools of this type form 
a prominent feature of the German exhibit, and con- 
stitute for us, at this time, the most important lesson 
of that comprehensive Exposition. Apart from the 
educational lessons, which possibly only appeal to 
specialists, this Exposition marks distinct steps in the 
realization of the chief end of educational exhibits, 
— namely, the increase of popular interest in ideal pur- 
poses through their effective symbolic representation. 
(Signed) Anna Tolman Smith, 

Chairman of the Committee. 

Group 2, Miss Anna G. MacDougal, Chicago, 111., 

Under the Group heading "Secondary Education," 
the two classes into which it was divided, represented: 
High schools and academies; manual training high 
schools, commercial high schools. Training and certi- 
fication of teachers. (Legislation, organization, statis- 
tics. Buildings: Plans and models. Supervision, manage- 
ment, methods of instruction; results obtained.) 

Miss MacDougal's report is as follows : — 

Study of the world's work as displayed at the St. 
Louis Exposition revealed the truth that to-day there 


is no clear line of demarcation between the work of 
men and of women. The product of woman's brain or 
of her hand was there placed side by side with the 
similar work of man, to be judged upon its merits, not 
by a standard suggested by limitation and apology. 
Such a cataloguing was the surest evidence of woman's 
industrial progress. Her part in art, literature, music, 
— the decorative side of life, — has long been granted ; 
what she is capable of doing in the practical business 
enterprises of modern society is just beginning to be 
revealed. My opportunity for observing this phase of 
woman's work was largely confined to the Educational 
exhibits, where I had the pleasure of serving as a juror, 
by appointment of the Board of Lady Managers. Owing 
to the character of the exhibits in the Department of 
Education, it was impossible to differentiate the work 
of the men and the women teachers, excepting where 
the exhibits showed the work of separate institutions 
for the sexes. A comparison of that kind would be 
profitable only from a pedagogical point of view, and 
is of minor consideration in our American system of 
education. Woman's place in the schoolroom is de- 
fended by tradition, expediency, and merit; and in- 
stead of surrendering, in the face of foreign criticism, 
their positions as instructors, women teachers are 
to-day broadening their field of labor by serving as 
instructors in many higher institutions where a gen- 
eration since they were not even admitted as students. 
To-day, in high schools, academies, and colleges, 
women not only share in the work of instruction, but 
fill offices of administration as well. 

Woman's success in a purely administrative or 


executive function was what proved most interesting 
at St. Louis. Many of the State exhibits of the pubHc 
schools were in charge of women. In each instance I 
found them well informed on questions of school sta- 
tistics, and eager to be helpful to visitors. It seemed 
as though these young women felt the distinction of 
serving in a public capacity, and had taken pains to 
prepare themselves for a creditable performance. The 
most striking instance of independent and original 
work was shown in the State exhibit from Minnesota. 
This exhibit was under the sole charge of Miss Susanne 
Sirwell, who planned it with the main purpose of ex- 
ploiting the complete system of manual training adopted 
in the Minnesota schools. With this plan in view, Miss 
Sirwell collected the specimens from various schools 
of the State, supervised the erection of the booth, and 
installed the displays. As a result the Minnesota ex- 
hibit had a distinct system and unity, was free from 
useless and cumbrous repetition, its main idea was 
readily grasped, and it stood as a memorable proof of 
one woman's artistic sense of proportion and adequacy. 
It was original in conception; it had beauty of color, 
order, and arrangement; and, as Miss Sirwell herself 
laughingly boasted, it was one of the two or three 
exhibits in that huge building which were ready and 
finished for public inspection on the opening day of 
the Fair. 

Group 3, Miss Mary Boyce Temple, Knoxville, Tenn., 


Under the Group heading "Higher Education," the 
five classes, into which it was divided, represented: 


Colleges and universities; Scientific, technical and en- 
gineering schools and institutions. Professional schools. 
Libraries. Museums. (Legislation, organization, sta- 
tistics. Buildings : plans and models. Curriculums, regu- 
lations, methods, administration, investigations, etc.) 

Miss Temple reports as follows : — 

The Educational Department at the World's Fair 
in St. Louis presented greater progress in woman's 
work, since the Columbian Exposition of 1893, than 
was shown by any other great division at the Expo- 

In regard to an approximate estimate of the pro- 
portional number of exhibits by women in the five 
classes of Group 3 (Higher Education) of the Educa- 
tional Department, I would say that only in the cases 
of the several large female colleges which installed 
exhibits at the Fair were there special women's ex- 
hibits distinct from those of men. In the United States 
section valuable and important displays were made by 
Vassar, Bryn Mawr, Woman's College of Baltimore, 
Smith, Wellesley, Mount Holyoke, Pratt Institute, 
New York, Milwaukee-Downer College, Milwaukee, 
and several lesser women's colleges. 

While in the English Section a wonderfully inter- 
esting showing of women's activity in " Higher Educa- 
tion" was made by the Oxford Association for the 
education of women, including Lady Margaret Hall, 
Summerville College, St. Hugh Hall, St. Hilda's Hall; 
by Girton College and Newnham College, Cambridge 
University; by Westfield College and the London 


School of Medicine for Women of the London Uni- 
versity; by Owens College of the Victoria University 
of Manchester; by University Hall of the University of 
St. Andrews; and by Dublin Alexandra College. 

In the German section no special exhibit of a wo- 
man's department was made by any university or 
college. According to the German system, women's 
education is carried on side by side with men's. Wo- 
men acquiring a leaving certificate from a classical 
gymnasium can matriculate on an equal footing with 
male students in the Universities of Heidelberg, Frei- 
burg, Erlangen, Wiirtzburg, and Munich. In the 
other universities, except Miinster, by permission of 
the Rector, or under the statutes, women are permitted 
to hear lectures. In all the German universities there 
are in attendance many women, either as matriculants 
or as hearers, ranging from ten to two hundred women 
at each university. 

In the Universities of France, Belgium, and Japan, 
a similar plan of educating men and women together 
exists. But outside the University of Paris, of Louvain, 
and of Tokio, the number of women attending the 
courses does not compare with the number in attend- 
ance at the German, English, and American universities. 
Among the lesser nations at the Fair, as Italy, Brazil, 
Argentina, Mexico, China, Canada, Sweden, Ceylon, 
and Cuba, the exhibits so often appearing under the 
name of college work, scarcely represented work in 
Higher Education except in the line of Art. 

The very fact that at St. Louis, women's work was 
nowhere separated from men's, but was shown side 
by side with it, was in itself a radical advance in the 


last eleven years. While this applied to every depart- 
ment of the Exposition, it applied with greatest impress- 
iveness to the Department of Higher Education. For 
this, in the past, had been set apart as man's special 
province; though of course, down through the ages, 
there have been brilliant exceptional cases of women 
becoming profound students and learned teachers, as 
Hypatia, Maria Agnesi, and others. 

In the five classes of Group 3 (Higher Education), 
in the Department of Education, there was really less 
scope and a more restricted field for women than in 
any other Group of the Educational Department. Of 
the Five Classes, to glance hastily over them, i. e., Class 
7, Colleges and Universities, Class 8, Scientific, tech- 
nical, and engineering schools, Class 9, Professional 
Schools, Class 10, Libraries, Class 11, Museums, — 
only in Class 7 and Class 10 has woman gained for 
herself any distinctly marked footing. In the other 
three classes, the hold she has acquired, from the very 
nature of the case, has been limited, but in every Class 
of Group 1 (Elementary Education), of Group 2 
(Secondary Education), of Group 4 (Special Education 
in the Fine Arts), of Group 6 (Special Education in 
Commerce and Industry), of Group 7 (Education of 
Defectives), of Group 8 (Special forms of Education, 
Text-books, etc.), — she is the controlling force, and 
is very strong. 

Inasmuch, however, as Higher Education has been 
considered less naturally her field, the steady advance 
she is making in it is the more noticeable and more 
striking, as shown at the World's Fair of 1904. In reply- 
ing to the question of an approximate estimate of the 


proportionate number of exhibits by women, in the 
five Classes of Group 3, I may venture to say it was 
near thirty-seven per cent, of the Domestic and Foreign 
Exhibits — estimating the percentage of work exhibited 
by men and women as probably proportional to the 
respective number of each sex registered. (See Mono- 
graphs on "Education in United States;" on "His- 
tory and Origin of Public Education in Germany;" 
" List of British Exhibits, Departments H and O.") 

In giving the nature of the exhibits by women in 
the Department of Higher Education, we gladly state 
that they differed little from the exhibits by men, as 
the requirements called for in the circular of the De- 
partment were identically the same for both. It hap- 
pened, however, possibly from being younger institu- 
tions and having less to show in the way of literature, 
libraries, histories, etc., partly also from having a less 
liberal supply of money, also partly from a smaller 
sense of ambition and rivalry with other institutions, 
that the exhibits of Vassar, Bryn Mawr, and the other 
women's colleges were smaller, less costly, and less 
elaborate, both in materials and in installation, than 
those of the men's colleges. The exhibits consisted 
largely of photographs, diagrams of statistics, prospect- 
uses and reports. In the case of the English Women's 
Colleges the showing was quite on a par with those 
of the men's universities, as they were in every case 
a part of the same. The American Women's Colleges 
in addition showed charts, department work, special 
work, histories, publications, and models of buildings 
and grounds. 


In the lesser foreign countries, exhibits of art and 
needlework, though sometimes questionably under the 
head of Higher Education, were thus entered by the so- 
called colleges. And while these could not be measured 
by the same standard as the English and American 
Women's College work, it was, however, valuable and 
instructive, as showing the emancipation and progress 
of women in lands where until within a few years her 
opportunities have been most restricted, and as present- 
ing the liberal spirit toward her which now animates 
the civilized world. Especially in Japan and Mexico the 
women's displays were novel and interesting. 

I am glad to pay tribute to the department work of 
the Woman's College, Baltimore, and to the advaneed 
special work of Bryn Mawr. 

As to what advancement was shown in the progress 
of women, I would emphatically answer that advance- 
ment was unmistakably apparent in every line of 
women's educational work — advancement not alone 
along old lines, but along new as well. One of the 
greatest steps forward made by woman, in the last 
eleven years since the Columbian Exposition, has been 
the throwing open to her of the doors of nearly all of 
the old established men's colleges, giving her in every 
country, in every state, and in nearly every large town 
almost the same free and easy access to learning enjoyed 
by her brothers. Coeducation and coeducational in- 
stitutions have rendered it possible for every woman 
desirous of self -improvement to find the highest advan- 
tages immediately at hand, only waiting for her to help 

Domestic Science and Household Economics are new 


sciences developed under the active interest of college 
women in the last twenty-three years. Their real hold 
upon the public, however, and their enlarged avenue 
for bettering the home, the food, the health of the 
nation, and consequently its usefulness, happiness, and 
prosperity, has come within the last eleven years. 

In all lines of art — from the fine arts of painting 
and sculpture to the practical and useful work of design 
in its multi-fold forms, woman's advance is almost 
phenomenal. In the sciences of astronomy, medicine, 
physics, and psychology, she has been far from inactive 
during the last half decade. In teaching, in all its 
branches from kindergarten and primary work through 
all the grades of intra-university training to specializa- 
tion in various lines, she has achieved her most striking 
success. In the future her usefulness will be more and 
more increased, in this, her beloved profession. The 
number of wpmen teachers is rapidly increasing, while 
the number of men is decreasing, and more and more 
women's college graduates are employed in the various 
chairs of colleges and universities. 

While the Educational Exhibits at St. Louis gave, 
in a general way, a complete presentation of women's 
part in the progress of the world, there was far less 
shown of the work of foreign women than was desired, 
in order to make a really satisfactory and just com- 
parative estimate of the relative advance of the women 
of our own country and those abroad. In fact, the 
exhibits of foreign women were too limited to allow of 
any comparison between the two. 

Woman's work in art, in school organization and 
management, — exemplified in the control of the great 


women's colleges, — her achievements in teaching, in 
research (historical and scientific), in medicine, un- 
mistakably shows that she is able to do, and is doing, 
unusual and far more capable work than she has ever 
done previously. Her pronounced success in serious 
literature, as well as in lighter literature, would alone 
demonstrate this. 

The work of women at this Exposition differed 
from that of the past in having extended into many 
new lines, whereas in quality it is greatly superior to 
anything they have ever before accomplished. A few 
years ago, the scientific and professional woman was 
the exception, — to-day she is the rule. Either working 
alone or assisting some great man, woman is found 
everywhere. To cite instances, I refer to the able assist- 
ance Mrs. Hedrick, a Vassar Alumna, gives to Pro- 
fessor Newcomb in his calculations on the moon; to 
the brilliant aid rendered by the wealthy and gifted 
young American girl, — of Leland Stanford and Johns 
Hopkins, — Dr. Annie G. Lyle, to the famous Dr. 
Theodore Escherich, of Vienna University, in his 
important expert medical researches, which have re- 
sulted in the famous scarlet fever serum, the discovery 
of Dr. Moser with the help of Dr. Lyle. As we have 
said, women's work has not only grown in extent, but 
in variety, in complexity, in greater thoroughness and 
ambition, and especially in the greater appreciation it 
receives from the world. 

Woman's splendidly accomplished successes as seen 
at the World's Fair give impulse to her efforts in every 
line. Assured of sympathy, encouragement is imparted 
to other women to take up science, teaching, the pro- 


{Appointed November 20, 1901) 



fessions. Formerly almost insurmountable obstacles 
were encountered by women. To-day the open door 
to triumph, according to her ability, along almost 
every line, is hers. In primary education, in all univer- 
sity training, in economic arts, in all sanitary studies, 
in philanthropic work, and in much of the practical 
part of medicine, the Louisiana Purchase Exposition 
showed women's efforts in a varied light of helpfulness 
and suggestion for the future. 

The juxtaposition of man's and woman's work was 
suggestive to men and at the same time will incite 
women to more and better endeavors along new lines. 
It will enable her to acquire more scientific ways and 
a better preparation for the business world. It will 
teach her a saving of energy and greater self-reliance. 

The incalculable advantage of women's work for 
the first time having a place side by side with men's 
cannot be overestimated. It enabled women to see at 
a glance their own weaknesses, and at the same time 
presented to the view of others their strong points in 
the most telling manner. The Jury of Higher Education 
did not ask on examining an exhibit whether it was 
men's or women's work. Each exhibit was judged 
entirely on its individual merit as presented. And if 
the universities aUd great men's colleges (and in many 
cases these included women's work) received a higher 
grade of award than did the great women's colleges, it 
was because, in the opinion of the jury, the equipment 
of the former and the larger showing in the way of 
actual work and appliances entitled them to the award, 
rather than that it was the respective work of either 
men or women. But I may say, to show the absolutely 


unbiased mind of the jury, that women's work in many 
lines came in for even greater appreciation than did that 
of the men. 

By no means would the results have been better 
if their work had been separately exhibited. A far 
greater importance was assumed by women's work 
in the placing of it side by side with men's work. Thus 
displayed it received precisely equal attention, and a 
more liberal study undoubtedly than it would have 
done if placed alone. 

At Chicago and various other Expositions, it was 
relegated to a far less desirable position by itself. The 
very fact of its isolation in a building designated the 
Woman's Building, set it apart as a different and in- 
ferior effort and created a prejudice against it. 

Women's work was far more varied at St. Louis and 
more representative of different nations. The so-called 
strictly feminine, viz., art and needlework, pottery, 
decoration, libraries of books by women authors, attract- 
ive parlors displaying women's taste, — which largely 
filled the charming women's buildings at Chicago, 
at Atlanta, at the Tennessee Centennial, at Omaha, 
and at Buffalo, — were unquestionably showy and 
striking displays. In St. Louis, on the contrary, 
women's exhibits mingled with men's work in the seri- 
ous and practical enterprises of the day and appealed 
to the same audiences. Woman appeared as she really 
is, the fellow student, the fellow citizen, and partner of 
man in the affairs of life. 

Manufacturers were not asked to state the percent- 
age of woman's work which entered into the manufac- 
ture of their special exhibits, nor did I have any way 


of forming any estimate on this point; neither were 
they shown in any manner that would indicate in any 
way or enable the investigator to distinguish what part 
had been performed by women. 

Considering all kinds of work involved in the ex- 
hibits of the Department of Education, whether in- 
stalled by women alone or in conjunction with men, the 
taste, completeness, ingenuity of the same, the clerical 
work during the duration of the Fair, — in other words 
the whole connection of woman with carrying out the 
administration of the Department of Education, it may 
be considered that fifty per cent, of the work was per- 
formed by women. The German section was entirely 
under the supervision of men, as were most, if not all, 
of the foreign exhibits. But women were everywhere 
else omnipresent in charge of the Educational Depart- 

In the awards to Higher Education I would say that 
upwards of twenty per cent, went to women exhibitors. 
(For percentages and other suggestions, I am indebted 
to Dr. J. J. Conway, St. Louis University, also a mem- 
ber of Jury of Higher Education.) 

We point with pride to the discovery of Radium by 
Madame Curie of Paris as both a new, useful, and 
distinctive work of woman. Columns might be written 
on this invention alone. The work of Madame Curie 
was certainly original. Miss Annie E. Sullivan's new 
methods of teaching the deaf-blind, as in the case of 
Helen Keller, gives her the honor not only of promi- 
nence as an educator of Defectives, but also of inventing 
a very new and valuable method of instruction. The 
methods of teaching Defectives are the wonder of 


educators, and will probably be effective of marvelous 
results in the near future. The highest praise must also 
be bestowed upon the work of Mrs. Shaw, and Miss 
Fisher, of Boston, and of Mrs. Putnam and Mary 
McCulloch, as the promoters of kindergarten work. 
Kindergarten work is self-eloquent. 

Credit is due woman for her conception of the idea 
of traveling libraries, which have so effectively brought 
cheer and recreation and even reform to many re- 
stricted lives. The libraries of the Colonial Dames 
and everything along the line of Reading Circles, Liter- 
ary Clubs, etc., have had their inception in the brains 
of women. Traveling libraries have been a boon to 
many small towns. Though it is impossible to enter 
into the details of woman's work in the industries, the 
Newcomb Pottery made at the Sophie Newcomb Col- 
lege, Louisiana, should be mentioned, — all of which 
is made by women educated at that school of design. 

I commend the ample and reliable literature on all 
these subjects, as a better source of information on the 
merits of these inventions than can be shown in this 
brief report. But most of women's work in the Edu- 
cational section, the school work, art work, etc., was 
an improvement along already existing lines. But along 
household and economic lines, women during the last 
ten years have done original thinking and much in- 
vestigation. And the studies in sanitary chemistry, the 
attainments as a scholar and scientist of Mrs. Ellen C. 
Richards, Vassar, 1870, stand out conspicuously, hav- 
ing won for her the respect of the world. 

The question of the value of the product or process, 
as measured by its usefulness or beneficent influence on 


mankind, is so vast that a flood of answers sweep over 
one, embracing the whole field of women's usefulness 
and the whole realm of education. The usefulness of 
the discovery of Radium has scarcely been estimated 
as yet, nor has the beneficent influence of teaching 
Defectives, and of many of the household inventions 
been fully enjoyed up to this time. The question in- 
volves much of the scientific success of the future along 
both physical, mental, moral and educational lines, and, 
judging by the past, we feel assured that many brilliant 
achievements will owe their origin and accomplish- 
ment to women. 

There was naturally nothing lacking in the merits 
of the installation of any exhibit presented by women, 
nor in the taste manifested in the placing of the same. 
The women's college booths were always effectively 
arranged and sometimes made up for the lack of range 
of exhibit by unusual artistic grouping and tasteful 
placing of the displays. 

Several times I have referred to the progress in art 
displayed by woman at St. Louis. This was evidenced 
not only in the magnificent specimens of her brush and 
chisel in the Fine Arts Museum in both the home and 
foreign Art Schools, but in the prolific efforts of her 
skill in the outside Exposition sculpture, where wo- 
man's work, side by side with man's, was pointed to 
with exultation, as one of the greatest triumphs of the 
Twentieth Century Exposition. We all recall how many 
of the most notable pieces of statuary crowning the 
various great palaces were the work of divinely en- 
dowed women. Such was the superb "Victory" sur- 
mounting Festival Hall, the conception of Mrs. Evylyn 


B. Longman ; while the spirit of " Missouri," which 
winged its flight from the summit of the great Missouri 
Building, was executed by Miss Carrie Wood, of St. 
Louis. To Miss Grace Lincoln Temple, the beautiful 
decorations of the interior of the United States Govern- 
ment Building were due. The two " Victory " statues on 
the Grand Basin and the Daniel Boone statue were 
executed by Miss Enid Yandell, by birth a Kentuckian, 
but now of New York. The statues of James Monroe, 
James Madison, George Rogers Clark, on Art Hill, 
were respectively done by Julia M. Bracken, Chicago, 
Janet Scudder, Terre Haute, and Elsie Ward, Denver. 
The reclining figures over the central door of the Lib- 
eral Arts Building were by Edith B. Stephens of New 
York, and the east and north spandrels of the Machin- 
ery Building were done by Melva Beatrice Wilson, 
New York. 

Glancing at the portrait painting of Cecelia Beaux, 
the work of Mary MacMonnies, of Margaret Fuller, 
of Mrs. Kenyon-Cox, and of Kate Carr of Tennessee, 
of Virginia Demont-Breton of France, of Lady Tadema 
and Henrietta Rae of Great Britain, we feel, as well 
as see, the exalted place woman's genius has given 
her in the art world of to-day; while in science we 
point with gratification not only to Madame Curie, 
but to the astronomical work of Miss Whitney of Vas- 
sar, of Miss Agnes Mary Clerke of Cambridge, Eng- 
land, and of Dorothea Klumpke, born in San Francisco, 
but connected with the Paris Observatory and one of 
the foremost astronomers of France. In archaeological 
works Miss Elizabeth Stokes of Alexandra College, 
Dubhn, in research work Miss Skeel of Westfield Col- 


{Appointed November 21, 1901) 


lege, London, and in mathematics Sophia Kowalevski 
of Stockholm, and Charlotte Angus Scott, born in Eng- 
land and professor at Bryn Mawr, stand out preemi- 
nent — adding even greater lustre to the woman's page 
of science, on which in the past the names of Carolyn 
Herschel, Mary Summerville, and Maria Mitchell were 
written in illumined letters. 

In medical works, especially in the United States, 
and more particularly in the profession of surgery, 
women have scored for themselves many glorious 
successes, though it is not possible here to enter into 
an amplification of the subject. 

In conclusion I would say that the Louisiana Pur- 
chase Exposition markedly showed the setting aside by 
woman of former traditions and her expansion into 
a new life, where, though by no means giving up the 
ornamental and social, she has yet demonstrated her 
rights to be recognized in the broader and more useful 
fields of discovery, investigation, and invention in art, 
science, and industry. She is everywhere the rival of 
man, everywhere entering with enthusiasm his chosen 
paths, excepting perhaps in naval and military opera- 
tions, and as nurse and ministering doctor, she is even 

As the World's Fair at St. Louis was a stupendous 
triumph of modern times in Manufactures, in Economic 
and Liberal Arts, in Electricity, in History, in Science, 
in Architecture, in Agriculture and Forestry, in Land- 
scape Gardening, in Machinery, in Archaeology, in 
Education, in Fine Arts, — in fact along every line of 
practical work, as well as in the sciences and arts, — so 
woman's progress in every department was such as to 


gleam forth from even the superb and marvelous splen- 
dor everywhere reflected, as worthy of her highest 
ambition and as suggestive of untold and signal possi- 
bilities for the future. 

Group 4, Mrs. E. H. Thayer, of Denver, Colorado, 


Under the Group heading "Special Education in 
Fine Arts," the two classes into which it was divided 
represented: (Institutions for teaching drawing, paint- 
ing, and music.) Art schools and institutes. Schools 
and Departments of music; conservatories of music. 
(Methods of instruction, results obtained. Legislation, 
organization, general statistics.) 

Mrs. Thayer writes as follows : — 

As a juror of this Group I was associated with five 
jurors, all men, holding positions as professors of 
schools of art, and they agreed with me that the fine 
art work of the women was equal to that of the 
men students, and in some schools of art it was far 
superior; this was especially so in the study of the 
nude from the academies of art in New York and Phil- 

The only school of art in which we found the work 
of women inferior to men was in Austria, excepting in 
the making of lace and embroidery, but the studies in 
figure-painting were inferior to the same work done by 
women in American schools. Yet the art students' work 
from Austria, as a whole, was so fine we gave that coun- 
try the grand prize. 


I was particularly pleased with the wall-paper de- 
signs made by women students in a school of design in 
New York City. They were most original and artistic, 
— this school made a display of several hundred de- 
signs and we were told they were all sold for large 
prices during the Exposition to manufacturers of wall- 

The New York Night School of Art showed some 
remarkably good work by girls, who were employed 
during the day. The Professor in charge told us that 
the girls were so eager for instruction in art that they 
would be waiting for the doors to open and would work 
longer hours and make greater progress than the 

Group 7, Miss Hope Fairfax Loughborough, of Little 
Rock, Arkansas, Juror. 

Under the Group heading " Education of Defectives," 
the three classes into which it was divided represented: 
Institutions for the blind; publications for the blind. 
Institutions for the deaf and dumb. Institutions for 
the feeble-minded. (Management, methods, courses of 
study; results. Special appliances for instruction. 
Legislation, organization, statistics. Buildings: plans 
and models.) 

Miss Loughborough presents the following report: — 

The jury of Group 7 in the Department of Educa- 
tion had under its inspection the work of the blind, the 
deaf, and the feeble-minded. In view of the fact that the 
exhibits were sent by institutes and special schools, and 


were the result of the cooperation of men and women 
teachers who selected the work of both boys and girls 
to represent the school as a whole, it was diflBcult to 
estimate with accuracy the proportional amount of 
women's work. As nearly as it can be estimated, how- 
ever, two fifths of the exhibits shown in the three 
classes of which this group was composed were the 
work of women. With the exception of a few special 
prizes the awards were given to institutions and not to 
individuals, but about twenty-one per cent, of these 
were given for women's work. The work of the boys 
and girls in the shops was generally shown distinctly, 
but were not awarded separately, the whole idea being 
to show, not what the boys or girls, the teachers or 
principals, were doing individually, but what results 
were being obtained in the institutions from the best 
known methods for special education both in class and 
industrial work, and particularly to show by means 
of the model school — or living exhibit — some of the 
class methods in operation. 

The living exhibits were the most striking in Classes 
19 and 20. They consisted of entire classes which were 
brought, one at a time, from different state institutions. 
Each class remained at the Fair some weeks, were pro- 
vided with accommodations on the grounds, and had 
its recitations every day in a temporary school-room in 
the Educational Building. This class-room was always 
surrounded by a crowd of eager lookers-on, who 
watched with the utmost attention the methods of 
instruction — so little known to the public in general 
— by which the deaf and blind make such wonderful 
progress. The work of instruction in the living exhibits. 


although almost entirely planned by men, was executed 
by women. 

The awards for the living exhibits were given the 
institutions from which the classes came, with one 
exception. This exception was Lottie Sullivan, a deaf 
and blind girl from the Colorado Institution, who was 
awarded a gold medal for her aptitude and the progress 
she had made. The jury thought at first that her teacher, 
too, deserved special recognition for the results ob- 
tained, but as it was found that the teacher in charge 
of Lottie Sullivan at the Fair had had her but a short 
time, and that there was no one person responsible for 
her progress, it was decided to make no award. 

Of the special schools, not state institutions, which 
exhibited, those conducted by women showed work on 
a par with that done in the schools conducted by men, 
and received as liberal rewards. 

Particularly creditable was the work done in the 
schools for the feeble-minded. 

In Group 7 the exhibits were divided into three 
classes, 19, 20, and 21, the work respectively of the blind, 
the deaf, and the feeble-minded. In Class 19, women 
showed basket work, raflSa work, modeling in clay, 
hammock weaving, crocheting, embroidery, printing 
by means of Braille writing-machines, and class work; 
in Class 20, sewing, embroidery, crocheting, painting, 
drawing, modeling, and class work; and in Class 21, 
basket-making, sewing, embroidery, crocheting, and 
class work. 

There was but one foreign woman who made an 
exhibit. This was Mademoiselle Mulot, a French- 
woman who had invented a writing-machine for blind 


children. She had brought a Httle blind French boy 
with her, who was not installed as an exhibit, but whom 
she brought before the jury to show the working of her 
machine. This machine consisted of a small frame 
blocked off into squares, in which the child was taught 
to write the letters of the English alphabet. Mademoi- 
selle Mulot's claim for award was that with the machine 
generally in use, it was necessary to teach the child a 
language of dots and dashes which was not legible by 
people in general. Although ingenious. Mademoiselle 
Mulot's machine was not considered striking or new 
enough to warrant an award. 

There was no display within the jurisdiction of 
Group 7 which would seem to indicate any great ad- 
vancement in the work of women since the Chicago 
Exposition, though the methods of instruction — many 
of them through the painstaking application of women 
— have undergone marked improvement. The work 
of women as shown by the exhibits in the education 
of Defectives at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 
placed on equal terms of comparison with that of men, 
was very creditable. There was nothing particularly 
helpful or suggestive in the school work being shown on 
equal terms of comparison with that of men, for in this 
field women have always kept well abreast of men, and 
their work has been appreciated equally with that of 

Department B, Art, Prof. Halsey C. Ives, Chief, 
comprised six Groups and eighteen Classes, the Board 
of Lady Managers being represented in four of the 


(Apiminted Jcniiinnj 22, 1902) 


Group 9, Miss Mary Solari, Memphis, Tennessee, 


Under the Group heading "Paintings and Draw- 
ings," the two classes into which it was divided repre- 
sented: Paintings on canvas, wood, metal, enamel, 
porcelain, faience, and on various preparations; by all 
direct methods in oil, wax, tempera, and other media; 
mural paintings; fresco painting on walls. Drawings 
and cartoons in water-color, pastel, chalk, charcoal, 
pencil, and other media, on any material. Miniatures 
on ivory. 

Miss Solari reports as follows : — 


The first feeling of a woman who looks back to the 
history of art during the last ten years is one of pride, 
for she recognizes that the exhibit made by women in 
the Fine Arts Department of the Louisiana Purchase 
Exposition is the best, most complete and important that 
has ever been made by women at any previous exposi- 
tion; that it is superior to that made at Chicago World's 
Fair in point of quality and character, and by compe- 
tent judges said to be better than that made in Paris 
in 1900. 

As regards the St. Louis Exposition that influence is 
conspicuous which has brought about a development 
rather than new foundations, or new schools. In seeking 
subjects for the "new thought" the " Old Masters" have 
not been lost sight of. " There is nothing new under the 


sun," and as the musician draws from the old masters 
his soul's inspiring theme, so the aspiring painter studies 
the canvases of the past ages for his correct guidance. 
And to the dispassionate observer these things prove 
much with regard to the actual work being done by 
women artists, and the new influences, if such they be, 
that have made themselves felt during the last decade. 
Should we regard a work of art as an independent 
entity, the result of what is called "a separate creative 
act" on the part of the artist with no relation to its 
environment, we must perforce conclude pre-natal con- 
ditions in the painter which we are loth to admit. 
Hence we have no reason to be ashamed of the Old 
Masters. Critics there are who know how to judge of 
a picture and critics who constitutionally cannot draw 
from a canvas a single salient good feature, they have 
not the knowledge of the difference between bad and 
beautiful design and color or the meaning of harmony. 

If we may apply to art what Goethe said of poetry, 
we find that among its votaries there are two kinds of 
self-half-informed people, dilettanti, he calls them, 
"he who neglects the indispensable mechanical part, 
and thinks he has done enough if he shows spirituality 
and feeling, and he who seeks to arrive at poetry merely 
by mechanism in which he can acquire an artisan's 
readiness and is without soul and matter." 

This Exposition has no doubt been the means of 
discouraging a number of men and women from con- 
tinuing in a profession for which they are not qualified 
by the possession of any rare gift. It is to be hoped, 
however, that the work accepted and shown at the St. 
Louis Exposition will prove that a class of women 


artists have been produced in the decade just past who 
have at least learned the grammar of their chosen art 
work — the value of simple lines and pure tones. 

The work of the women was placed side by side 
with that of the men artists and where the pictures 
would show to the best advantage and harmonize with 
the surrounding ones. 

In examining for awards the merit of the work was 
discussed and considered regardless of the name the 
canvas bore; but that this was the better plan for ex- 
hibiting women's work leaves room for doubt, because 
as a whole women's work could not be viewed, thereby 
leaving the exhibition incomprehensive to the average 
visitor, who could not grasp the importance of woman's 
contribution to the world of art by the scattered pic- 
tures as arranged in the various galleries of the Art 
Building. I do not hesitate to say that women in gen- 
eral, by their representation at the Louisiana Purchase 
Exposition, derived little or no benefit by having their 
work placed side by side with that of men, chiefly 
because it was reduced to insignificance by the small 
proportion of works exhibited. Secondly, the visiting 
public was not attracted by the fact that women had 
a picture here and there hanging on some one of the 
walls in the Palace of Art. 

Had their work been collected in one gallery the 
display would have been more comprehensive and 
better appreciated. But, nevertheless, this Exposition 
has emphasized the fact that woman fills an important 
place in the field of art. She wields her brush deftly, 
conscientiously, and her canvases fit well side by side 
with those of her brother artists. 


Women at the Exposition excelled most in figure 
paintings in oils, and in this line of work have made 
greater progress since the Chicago Exposition than in 
any other branch of the Fine Arts. The execution is bold, 
free, and shows a greater familiarity with the subject 
portrayed, though they have reached a very high 
standard in water-color landscapes and are notably 
strong in miniature painting. The innate refinement 
and delicate sense of detail and color which character- 
ize women are prominent for the features for the pro- 
duction of the high finish required in a miniature. 
Mural painting is beginning to attract women, and with 
their love for beautiful homes they must soon excel in 
this branch and bring decorative art to a fuller per- 

One of the crowning glories of this Exposition is 
that it has brought to the few American artists living 
at home the opportunity to study the salient character- 
istics of the schools of the various countries exhibiting 
at the St. Louis Exposition. 

Twenty-four countries exhibited in the Fine Arts 
Department and contributed to Groups 9 and 10 : 5468 
pictures from nearly fifteen hundred professional artists, 
of which number not more than three hundred were 
women (289), and fully half this number were repre- 
sented by their work in the United States section. The 
number of awards bestowed in the United States sec- 
tion was 41 to women exhibitors against 239 to men. 
The total number given in the foreign sections collect- 
ively was 17 to women against 398 to men. No work 
executed prior to the Chicago Exposition was in com- 
petition for award. 




United States 

Oil paintings 


Mural paintings 





Oil painting 

(Miss Wernicke) 


Oil paintings 




Oil paintings 


Oil paintings 





Oil paintings 


Oil paintings 




Oil paintings 



Oil paintings 




Oil painting 

(Miss Garcia) 


Oil painting 

(Miss Franco) 




Oil paintings 


Oil paintings 



Sweden France 

Oil paintings 6 Oil paintings 19 

Water-colors 17 


Oil paintings 16 

Water-colors 13 

Drawings 10 

The two last-named countries (France and England) 
did not exhibit in any department for awards. 

List of Honors conferred by the International Jury 
of Awards upon Women Artists Exhibiting in the 
Department of Fine Arts of the Louisiana Purchase 
Exposition : — ' 

Group IX 
Gold Medal 

Beaux, Cecelia. Hills, Laura C. 

Fuller, Lucia Fairchild. Thayer, Theodora W. 

Silver Medal 

Chase, Adelaide Cole. Oakley, Violet. 

Cox, Louise. Sears, Sara C. 

Emmet, Helen. Sherwood, Rosina E. 

Emmet, Lidia F. Watkins, Susan. 

Green, Mary S. Wheeler, Janet. 
Nourse, Elizabeth. 

Bronze Medals 

Ahrens, Ellen Witherald. Beckington, Alice. 
Baker, Martha S. Cooper, Emma Lampert. 


Dickson, Mary C. Palmer, Pauline. 

Earle, Elinor. Perry, Lilla Cabot. 

Herter, Adele. Searle, Alice T. 

Hess, Emma Kipling. Sewell, Amanda Brewster. 

Kendall, Margaret. Sloan, Mariana. 

Klumpke, Anna E. Smith, Letta C. 

MacChesney, Clara T. Van der Veer, Mary. 

NichoUs, Rhoda Holmes. Wing, A. B. 

Packard, Mabel. Wood, Louise. 

Group X 
Silver Medal 

Harding, Charlotte. Smith, Jessie Willcox. 

Bronze Medal 

Cowles, Maud Alice. Green, Elizabeth Shippen. 

Group IX. Paintings and Drawings 
Silver Medal 

Calias, Henriette. De Hem, Louise. 

De Bievre, Marie. Witsman, Juliette. 

Group IX. Paintings and Drawings 

Silver Medal 

Carlyle, Florence. 

Bronze Medal 

Muntz, Laura.. 



Group IX. Paintings and Drawings 

Bronze Medal 

Wirth, Anna Maria. 

Group EX. Paintings and Drawings 

Gold Medal 

Schwartze, Therese. 

Group IX. Paintings and Drawings 

Silver Medal Bronze Medal 

Uyemura, Madam Shoyen. Antomi, Madam Giokushi. 

Group IX. Paintings and Drawings 

Silver Medal 

H. R. M. the Queen of Portugal. 


Group IX. Paintings and Drawings 

Bronze Medal 

Backlund, Eliza. Loudon, Emilie. 

Group IX. Paintings and Drawings 
Bronze Medal 
Almquist, Esther. Nordgren, Anna. 

Brate, Fanny. Wahtstrom, Charlotte. 


Group 11, Mrs. Elizabeth St. John Matthews, New 
York City, Juror. 

Under the Group heading "Sculpture," the four 
classes into which it was divided represented : Sculpture 
and bas-reliefs of figures and groups in marble, bronze, 
or other metal; terra cotta, plaster, wood, ivory, or other 
material. Models in plaster and terra cotta. Medals, 
engravings on gems, cameos, and intaglios. Carvings 
in stone, wood, ivory, or other materials. 

Mrs. Matthews reports as follows : — 

The recent Louisiana Purchase Exposition furnished 
further evidence of the importance of such gatherings 
of the world's artisans, and has left with us an illu- 
minating impression of the eflFectiveness of the greater 
civilization, which is the result of unification of na- 
tional interest in the development of the useful and 
beautiful. This is probably the greatest good from such 
expositions, and they serve to cement the workers of 
the world in one grand mosaic of endeavor. 

The field of application is large, and the progressive 
people are few. We are babes as yet in the ability to 
receive ideas and with comparatively little capacity for 
the expression of them in tangible work; so that what- 
ever tends to a common interest that speaks for pro- 
gress, let it be exultant cause for practical thinkers to 
give their support to every such movement. 

The wide identification women have accomplished 
in the fields of industrials and art, during the past 
decade, have made it necessary that the sex be taken 
into serious consideration in expositions; and that re- 


quisite encouragement and support be given women, 
it is necessary that they should have adequate repre- 
sentation on committees and boards that are formed 
for administration. Service on such boards by women 
is invariably conscientious and efficient, and for this 
reason their services are valuable in all departments in 
which the work of women is involved, and it is certainly 
obvious that socially they are indispensable. 

As a member of the Committee on Awards in Sculp- 
ture at the recent Exposition at St. Louis, I wish to say 
that in the Sculptural Exhibit 60 out of 350 pieces, or 
17^ per cent., were by women. Four of these pieces were 
by women of foreign birth and residing in foreign coun- 
tries. Of this number there were a few portrait busts, 
and the remainder were ideal and symbolic works. 

The first impression one received in viewing the 
work in this department was, that there were a number 
of women sculptors in this country of more than ordi- 
nary ability; and this impression grew the more you 
examined their work with that of men. It is true that 
by far the greater number of pieces sent by women were 
small, but even they showed a capacity for conception, 
construction, technique, and individuality, that will ere 
long make them fully the equals of men in this import- 
ant branch of the arts. And there were large pieces 
there, too, that spoke of a daring that will soon develop 
into a confidence that promises well for future work; 
and this element was what the women sculptors of the 
country lacked more than any other. 

The placing of their work alongside that of men 
will do much to increase confidence m their own powers ; 
and while it would not be exact to say that the work of 


SALON {looking east) 


the two sexes was equal in merit, the difference was not 
great. For this reason I think the managers did an ex- 
tremely wise thing in not segregating the work of the 
two sexes, and in placing them side by side so that 
the weak points could be discovered and remedied, and 
the points of excellence improved. All were delighted 
to see the advancement women have made in sculptural 
art in the past few years, and this advancement is at- 
tested by the fact that they received one gold, three 
silver, and sixteen bronze medals in this department 

The progress they have made in the past ten years 
has been most gratifying, and they are certainly pro- 
gressing more rapidly along certain lines than men. 
The deficiencies and points of weakness brought out by 
this exhibition will soon be overcome, and as women 
have become convinced that natural endowment does not 
fit men for greater work than women, they will evolve 
grander themes than heretofore. And by the firmness 
with which woman in art is already treading this up- 
ward path, she is convincing others that another road 
exists than that which their feet knew. 

It is positive that the encouragement given to man 
on account of his physical prowess, by both men and 
women, has had a psychological effect in helping him 
to evolve ideas, and to carry them out in tangible form. 
Women will be helped to a large extent only by women ; 
they must not wait for that help that has been given 
man. They must do the work that comes to their con- 
sciousness, or that which is given them to do, without 
question or hesitation. There should not be any doubt 
or leaning on any seeming staff. Women are the origi- 


nators, the creators of spiritual and material progress, 
and must not be fearful in expressing themselves. The 
female mind is more refined, more delicate, thus receiv- 
ing truer perceptions than man's. The sensitiveness of 
the woman nature is of much advantage in any artistic 

The fine arts. Music, Poetry, Painting, and Sculp- 
ture, have been the educators of nations. Now that 
woman's thought is finding greater expression, their 
mental and moral influence on both sexes will be great; 
and as such expositions are world-wide educators, the 
beneficent influence of women as co-workers and prac- 
tical idealists is above and beyond computation as a 
proper exposition attraction. It was a great surprise 
to the millions of people who saw the excellence of tal- 
ent that was shown by the women artists, and the fact 
that women did it elevated the sentiment and appre- 
ciation of art. Indeed, without the work of women 
oflBcially organized, and as individuals, it could not have 
reached, as it did, the height of success. 

Group 12, Miss Rose Weld, Newport News, Va., 

Under the Group heading "Architecture," the four 
classes into which it was divided represented: Draw- 
ings, models, and photographs of completed buildings. 
Designs and projects of buildings. (Designs other than 
of architectural or constructive engineering.) Draw- 
ings, models, and photographs of artistic architectural 
details. Mosaics; leaded and mosaic glass. 

It is unfortunate that in this department the extent 
in which women share in the kind of work represented 


in this group was not demonstrated. While there are 
not many women architects of buildings as yet, it is be- 
lieved that the number is rapidly increasing, and within 
the past ten years it has been discovered that their 
aptitude for designing and working in leaded glass is of 
the highest, their artistic tendencies rendering them 
peculiarly adapted to this kind of work. 

Miss Weld reports as follows : — 

In this department there were only two women 
exhibitors, both Americans. The English and French 
exhibits were not open for competition, but, so far as 
I could find out, there were no exhibits by women 
from either of these countries. 

One of the American women exhibited, as an 
architect, some attractive plans and interior \^ews for 
a farmhouse. The other, as a landscape architect, some 
photographs of garden scenes. 

This last exhibit was the more striking of the two, 
as it showed that in the last few years women had made 
inroads into another profession hitherto left to the 

Miss Brown only finished her studies in landscape 
architecture at the Massachusetts Institute of Tech- 
nology in 1903, where she was one of the first three 
women to take the course, — a course only established 
within the last few years, — so that there has not been 
much time in which to show what women can do in the 
profession. It is but a step from private gardens to 
public parks and grounds. 

Until lately the laying out of the grounds has been 


left to the landscape gardener, after the house and other 
buildings have been completed by the architect. It is 
the idea of the landscape architect, as I understand it, 
to consider both elements in the original design, instead 
of leaving them to the different tastes of the architect 
and landscape gardener, in the hope of having a more 
harmonious result. 

Though both the exhibits mentioned above were 
appreciated in their classes, I cannot help thinking that 
not enough attention was paid to the way they were 
presented, especially in the case of the garden scenes. 
Six little photographs mounted in one frame did not 
show to the advantage or make the impression that 
the working drawings and one large photograph of the 
result would have made. 

As the work of men and women must stand side by 
side in the world, the proper way is to exhibit it on 
terms of equal comparison, as was done at St. Louis. 
If the work is better than the men's, so much the more 
glory; if not so good, it ought to arouse ambition. 

It was a great disappointment to see such a small 
exhibit by women in this department, — a department 
where such creditable work has been done by women 
in this country, and if there had been at all a just repre- 
sentation, I am sure it would have been a great surprise 
to some of the foreign visitors. I hope the other depart- 
ments were better represented. 

Group 14, Mrs. Eugene Field, Buena Park, 111., Juror. 

Under the Group heading " Original Objects of Art 
Workmanship," the eight classes into which it was 
divided represented : Art work in glass (other than that 


which is included in Group 12). Art work in earthen- 
ware; pottery or porcelain. Art work in metal (other 
than that included in Group 11). Art work in leather. 
Art work in wood (other than that included in Group 
11). Art work in textiles. Artistic book-binding. Art 
work not covered by any other group. 

No report. 

It is to be regretted that Mrs. Field felt unable to 
make any report on this group, which so seK-evidently 
must have contained much work done at least in part 
by women. It is well known that they have, within the 
past few years, entered the field of artistic book-binding 
with the most gratifying success, that they excel in art 
work in textiles, and are proficient in art work in leather. 

Department C, Liberal Arts, Col. John A. Ocher- 
son, Chief, comprised 13 Groups and 116 Classes, the 
Board of Lady Managers being represented in but three 
of the groups. 

Group 16, Miss Frances B. Johnston, Washington, 
D. C, Juror. 

Under the Group heading "Photography," the two 
classes into which it was divided represented: (Equip- 
ment, processes and products.) Materials, instruments 
and apparatus of photography; equipment of photo- 
graphic studios. Negative and positive photography 
on glass, paper, wood, cloth, films, enamel, etc. Photo- 
gravure in intaglio and in relief; photocollography, 
photolithography. Stereoscopic prints. Enlarged and 


micrographic photographs. Color photography. Direct, 
indirect, and photo-color printing. Scientific and other 
applications of photography. Artistic photography as 
applied to portraiture, landscapes, etc. 

Miss Johnston says : — 

There were comparatively few women exhibitors 
whose work was passed upon by our Group Jury, but 
notwithstanding this fact, the work of the women ranked 
very high, and was fully recognized in the awards. In 
this regard I do not venture to base any report to you 
on my memory alone, and I have, so far, been unsuc- 
cessful in getting any official list of the awards made. 

Group 17, Mrs. Horace S. Smith, Chicago, 111., 


Under the Group heading "Books and Publications, 
Book-binding," the seven classes into which it was 
divided represented : (Equipment and products.) News- 
papers, reviews, and other periodicals. Collections of 
books, forming special libraries. New books and new 
editions of old books. Drawings, atlases, albums. 
Musical publications. Equipment, processes, and pro- 
ducts of making stitched books and of book-binding. 
Specimens of bindings, stamping, embossing, gilding, etc. 

No report. 

That the work of women entered into the nature of 
the exhibit is shown by the fact that the Exposition 
Company granted the Board representation upon it, 


and one has but to step into any large bindery to see 
scores of women busily engaged in the various depart- 
ments, from folding the printed sheets to laying on the 
gold-leaf; on newspapers the range of their work is 
from type-setting to editor-in-chief, and no library seems 
to exist at the present time without one or more women 
on its working staff. 

Group 18, Mrs. W. M. Woolwine, Nashville, Tenn., 


Under the Group heading "Maps and Apparatus 
for Geography, Cosmography, Topography," the four 
classes into which it was divided represented: Maps, 
charts, and atlases; geographical, geological, hydro- 
graphical, astronomical, etc. Physical maps of all kinds, 
topographical maps, flat or in relief. Terrestrial and 
celestial globes; statistical works and tables. Tables 
and nautical almanacs for the use of astronomers, sur- 
veyors, and seamen. 

Mrs. Woolwine writes : — 

Having served as Juror in Group 18 of the Depart- 
ment of Liberal Arts at the Louisiana Purchase Expo- 
sition, it gives me great pleasure to make for you the 
best report I can on woman's work, my knowledge of 
most of which has been obtained from outside sources, 
as by neither registration nor cataloguing was there any 
differentiation between the work of man and woman. 

There were two very large relief maps of New 
Orleans and the levee system of the Mississippi River, 
which were the work of Miss Jennie Wilde, of New 


Orleans, and, while they rank low in the final prize 
award, attracted a great deal of attention and admira- 
tion. Comparatively speaking, I think this work much 
more ambitious than that heretofore undertaken by a 
woman along this line, and it should prove a stimulus to 
woman in a new field. I could not see that results would 
have been better if their work had been separately ex- 

So far as I know, manufacturers were not then asked 
to state the percentage of woman's work which entered 
into their special exhibits; nor were they, as a rule, 
shown in such manner as to indicate in any way which 
part was performed by woman, and which by man. 
The grand prize work, I am informed by the Rand, 
McNally Company, was nearly half performed by 
women; certainly 45 per cent, of it. In this the skill 
and ingenuity displayed and the originality was not 
separable from that of her co-laborers. 

Group 18, which consisted of geographical work in 
general, was hardly a fair test of woman's skill, survey- 
ing and engineering having been considered out of het 
line. Therefore, I consider the one exhibit by woman 
a step forward along a new line, a willingness to com- 
pass great things, an evidence of woman's ambition and 
desire to succeed, — but with her past education and 
opportunities inadequate for equal competition. 

If I may suggest, it will be greatly to our interest 
that women should have their work so catalogued that 
they may have credit for what labor they perform. No 
doubt, much work is done in map-making by women, 
but no mention of it is catalogued, or credit for its 
excellence asked by them. 

It seems to me that a committee to investigate these 


questions at the beginning of each great exposition, or 
at the time of the placing of the exhibits, would be of 
very great statistical value in determining the amount 
of labor and the degree of skill exercised by woman in 
these departments. 

The art of embroidery has always been supposed to 
be one peculiarly belonging to women, but that the men 
at least occasionally invade the field of her occupations 
is shown by the fact that the large Japanese and Chinese 
maps exhibited in the Transportation Building were 
both done by men; they showed exquisite workman- 
ship, particularly the embroidered one. 

The letter Miss Wilde herself has written, in regard 
to the work on her relief map of the levee system, 
may be of interest, as this certainly represents a new 
field of labor for women. It counted one more gold medal 
in the awards. 

** All of the work on my relief maps was done by 
'woman,' my sister assisting me greatly. On account 
of the limited time I had to finish the maps in, I was 
unable to finish them entirely myself, so had to employ 
assistants, but in each case it was the hand of woman. 
I received a gold medal for my work, or rather, my work 
received a gold medal, — it being an order from the 
State of Louisiana, and forming a part of their exhibit, 
the medal had to become the property of the State. 

Surveying and engineering I have never studied 
except in the making of these maps, when every assist- 
ance in regard to data, etc., was given me by the most 
noted state and city engineers, they coming from time 
to time to supervise the work, and laughingly saying, 
when I had completed the same, that they would have 


to give me a diploma for proficiency in the profession. 
Of course I had to read up and learn a great deal in 
regard to surveying and engineering in making the 
maps, as everything is done correctly to a scale." 

Department D, Manufactures, Mr. Milan H. Hul- 
bert, Chief, comprised 24 Groups and 231 Classes, the 
Board of Lady Managers being represented in but 
seven groups. 

This would seem to be one of the departments where 
women should have been accorded fuller recognition. 
Space does not permit an examination of the number 
of Groups into which their work largely enters, but, in 
the Group of Clock and Watch-making, for instance, 
it would seem scarcely just not to grant them their full 
measure of praise for work well done. In one factory 
alone in Massachusetts, where more than 3000 persons 
are employed, hundreds of them are women and girls, 
engaged not only in assembling the parts, but attend- 
ing various machines. Under the Group "Toys," also, 
"Dolls, playthings," — it is self-evident women must 
have much to do with their manufacture and prepara- 
tion for the market, and their inventions of toys and 
playthings for children would seem preeminently to 
entitle them to the place in this Group which was de- 
nied them. 

Group 37, Mrs. R. A. Edgerton, Milwaukee, Wis., 


Under the heading "Decoration and fixed furniture 
of Buildings and Dwellings," the nine classes into which 


(Appointed September 30, 1902) 


it was divided represented: Permanent Decoration 
of Public Buildings and of Dwellings. Plans, drawings, 
and models of permanent decoration. Carpentry; 
models of framework, roof -work, vaults, domes, wooden 
partitions, etc. Ornamental joiner-work; doors, win- 
dows, panels, inlaid floors, organ-cases, choir-stalls, etc. 
Permanent decorations in marble, stone, plaster, papier- 
mache, carton pierre, etc. Ornamental carvings and 
pyrographics. Ironwork and locksmith's work applied 
to decoration; grill-work and doors in cast or wrought 
iron; doors and balustrades in bronze; roof decoration 
in lead, copper, zinc, dormers, spires, finials, vanes; 
crest and ridge work. Decorative paintings on stone, 
wood, metal, canvas, or other surfaces. Signs of all 
varieties. Mosaic decorations in stone or marble for 
flooring; enameled mosaic for walls and vaulted sur- 
faces. Various applications of ceramics to the perma- 
nent decoration of public buildings and dwellings. 

As much time was consumed in endeavoring to com- 
municate with the Principal appointed in this Group, 
Mrs. Edgerton as Alternate did not arrive in St. Louis 
until the work of the Jury was far advanced, and, 
therefore, could make no report. 

Group 45, Mrs. Isaac Boyd, Atlanta, Ga., Juror. 

Under the Group heading "Ceramics," the thirteen 
classes into which it was divided represented: (Raw 
materials, equipment, processes, and products.) Raw 
materials, particularly chemical products used in ce- 
ramic industrials. Equipment and methods used in 
the manufacture of earthenware ; machines for turning, 
pressing, and moulding earthenware; machines for 


making brick, roofing-tile, drain-tile, and pottery for 
building purposes; furnaces, kilns, muffles, and baking- 
apparatus; appliances for preparing and grinding 
enamels. Various porcelains. Biscuit of porcelain and 
of earthenware. Earthenware of white or colored body, 
with transparent or tin glazes. Faience. Earthenware 
and terra cotta for agricultural purposes; paving-tiles, 
enameled lava. Stoneware, plain and decorated. Tiles, 
plain, encaustic, and decorated ; mosaics, bricks, paving- 
bricks, pipes. Fireproof materials. Statuettes, groups, 
and ornaments in terra cotta. Enamels applied to ce- 
ramics. Mosaics of clay or of enamel. Mural designs; 
borders for fireplaces and mantels. 

No report. 

Group 53 (later combined with Group 61), Mrs. F. K. 
Bowes, Chicago, 111., Juror. 

Under the Group heading of "Equipment and Pro- 
cesses used in Sewing and Making Wearing Apparel," 
the nine classes into which it was divided represented: 
Common implements used in needlework. Machines 
for cutting clothes, skins, and leathers. Machines for 
sewing, stitching, hemming, embroidering, etc. Ma- 
chines for making button-holes; for sewing gloves, 
leather, boots and shoes, etc.; plaiting straw for 
hats. Tailor's geese and flatirons. Busts and figures 
for trying on garments. Machines for preparing 
separate parts of boots and shoes (stamping, mould- 
ing, etc.). Machines for lasting, pegging, screwing, 
nailing. Machines for making hats of straw, felt, 

Mrs. Bowes writes as follows : — 




Honorary Vice-President, 

First Vice-President, 

Second Vice-President, 



Daniel C. Nugent, St. Louia. 

Jean Mouilbeau, Paris, France. 

John Sheville Capper, Chicago. 

J. E. Wilson, Elmwood, lU. 

Charles W. Farmer, New York City. 

Ella E. Lane Bowes, Chicago, 111., 
elected by the Jury to fill the place of Secretary Charles Farmer, owing to 
his having been called to New York City. 

Vice Chairman, 


Group 53 

J. E. Wilson, 
Charles E. Moore, 
Ella E. Lane Bowes, 
Mary C. Harrow, 
Matilda Ripberger, 

Group 61 

John Sheville Capper, 

M. Blum, 

M. Mouilbeau, 

Eugene Leonard, 

Fred L. Rossback, 

W. E. McClelland, 

M. Magai, 

Celia Nelson, 

Nellie Saxton, 

Ella E. Lane Bowes, 

Elmwood, 111. 
Brockton, Mass. 
Chicago, 111. 
Ottumwa, Iowa. 
Dresden, Germany. 

Chicago, 111. 
Paris, France. 
Paris, France. 
Paris, France. 
Chicago, 111. 
New York City. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 
Chicago, HI. 


Group 53 was composed of two men and two women 
jurors, viz. the Chairman and Vice-Chairman, men, the 
secretary, the writer, an American and a German woman. 



Group 53 was composed of equipments, processes, 

Class 326. Common implements used in needlework. 
Class 327. Machines for cutting clothes, skirts, and 

Class 328. Machines for sewing, stitching, hemming, 

embroidering, etc. 
Class 329. Machines for making button-holes; for 

sewing gloves, leather, boots and shoes, 

etc.; plaiting straw for hats. 
Class 330. Tailor's geese and flatirons. 
Class 331. Busts and figures for trying on garments. 
Class 332. Machines for preparing separate parts of 

boots and shoes. (Stamping, moulding, 

Class 333. Machines for lasting, pegging, screwing, 

Class 334. Machines for making hats of straw, felt, 

In this group of nine classes there were no distinctive 
exhibits by women, but the outcome of their skillful 
labor on the wonderful machines was purely their own 
and well displayed. 

The most practical exhibit of women's work was the 
finished product of sewing machines in the United States 
and Great Britain sections. 

The Singer Sewing Machine exhibit furnished the 
best display in the group. The work was very fine in 
detail, done by skilled artisans. 

Among the work in the homely arts were shoes, cor- 
sets, underwear, and skillful darning. The manufacture 
of these useful articles proved interesting. 


In the beauty arts were displayed embroideries and 
fancy monograms, a skilled workman demonstrating a 
machine that would produce twelve monograms at one 
time in elaborate embroidery; in fact, the machines 
seemed as human as the workers themselves; although 
they were not talkers, they were " Singers." 

Among the notable exhibits in this group was the 
attractive display of paper patterns. 

The Butterick Pattern Company exhibited on life- 
size wax figures the evolution of dress during the past 
one hundred years, true to the fashions of each decade 
in style, color of dress, and bonnet. 

The McCall Company's exhibit consisted of life-size 
wax figures attired in paper patterns, up to date in all 
the idiosyncrasies demanded by fashion, an educational 
feature in this line of work. 

As a work of art the large and handsome display of 
paper costumes has never been equaled. No such dis- 
play of costumes, representing lace, velvet, linen, silk, 
cloth, etc., all made in paper, has ever been seen any- 
where in the world prior to this exhibit; and this work 
of art was the handicraft of women. 

In the Homer Young Company's Sewing Machine 
the demand and supply for women's comfort was again 
called out in the combined dressing-table and sewing 
machine, a good invention for flats, the fad of the day, 
that was designed for convenience. 

The electric flatirons were certainly an advance in the 
right direction. 

A great time-saver was the "Universal Button Fas- 
tener," "guaranteed not to come off." 

In some departments of manufacture exhibits the 


percentage of woman's labor was said to be ten per 
cent. ; the wax figure department seventy-five per cent. ; 
in operating sewing machines for the manufacture of 
wearing apparel, etc., the percentage is about ninety. 
Operation of sewing machines and kindred industries 
have reached about as high a state of perfection as pos- 
sible. The same holds good in regard to the Singer Sew- 
ing Machines of Great Britain. Their output is larger 
for machines for the manufacture of embroideries, lace, 
saddlery, leather, top boots, sewings, and upholstery. 
A specialty of machine work was their fine hemstitch- 
ing. Perhaps the attractiveness of the Singer Sewing 
Machine exhibits was owing largely to the fact that they 
were shown in motion. 

Germany's sewing machines' product showed great 
skill in workmanship. 

Lintz and Eckardt, Berlin, displayed the output of 
eight styles of embroidery machines, ribbon plaiting, and 
a three-needle machine with band apparatus, which 
turned out wonderful work of bead and silk embroider- 
ies on silk and other fabrics. 

The many dress-cutting and ladies' tailoring systems, 
again the inventions of man, are perhaps among the 
most useful in women's work to-day, in teaching dress- 
cutting from a perfect system and greatly assisting in 
the work of drafting garments from actual measure- 
ments. It is a time-saver, and is so constructed as to 
follow the changes in fashion, and women can by their 
use become expert workmen and display artistic skill. 
A great advancement has been made along this line of 
work during the past ten years, or since the last exposi- 
tion; not only from a practical standpoint, but as an 


educational feature, especially in rural districts; for 
through their schools, conducted through correspond- 
ence, they have enabled women throughout the coun- 
try to learn dressmaking and to keep in close touch with 
the styles of the world. 

The McDowell system, for manufacturing purposes, 
is superior, and under a skilled workman is most 

The Edward Curran drafting-machines are useful for 
the novice, good on account of their simplicity, being 
more portable on account of folding into a small com- 
pass. The same can be said of the Valentine system. 

In this Group there was no installation by foreign 

In Group 53 there was nothing unusual displayed 
that would lead one to think that women were more 
capable of executing more advanced work than they 
accomplished eleven years ago. 

In the Louisiana Purchase Exposition woman's work 
was installed in such a manner, not being specified, that 
one could not tell where her work began and where it 
left off. As to the appreciation of women's work, it was 
taken as a whole, and was judged as a work of mankind. 
Women's work and men's work of to-day would be hard 
to separate. Perhaps if women's work could be brought 
out more prominently it would be better for them. No 
work was displayed in such a manner as to enable one 
to distinguish between the two. In the manufacture of 
personal effects, the larger proportion was women's 

No woman received an award in Group 53, to my 


As has been said before, the operation of machines 
is especially women's work. Women were not the 
inventors, but they displayed ingenuity and skill in 
the operation, application. Although they are not the 
original inventors, it is a well-known fact that many 
improvements are women's suggestions. Their working 
at the machines and the ingenuity and taste displayed 
in the choice of work was of marked value as an expo- 
sition attraction. 



(Processes and Products) 

Class 383. Hats; hats of felt, wool, straw, silk; caps, 
trimmings for hats. 

Class 384. Artificial flowers for dressing the hair, for 
dress, and for all other uses. Feathers. 
Millinery. Hair: coiffures, wigs, switches. 

Class 385. Shirts and underclothing for men, women, 
and children. 

Class 386. Hosiery of cotton, wool, silk, and floss silk, 
etc.; knitted hosiery, cravats, and neck- 

Class 387. Corsets and corset-fittings. 

Class 388. Elastic goods, suspenders, garters, belts. 

Class 389. Canes, whips, riding whips, sunshades, 
parasols, umbrellas. 

Class 390. Buttons; buttons of china, metal, cloth, 
silk, mother-of-pearl, or other shell, ivory- 
nut, horn, bone, papier-mach^, etc. 


Class 391. Buckles, eyelets, hooks and eyes, pins, 

needles, etc. 
Class 392. Fans and hand screens. 

Owing to Mr. Farmer being called to his home, Mrs. 
Ella E. Lane Bowes, secretary of Group 53, served as 
secretary of Group 61 also. 

Group 61 was composed of eleven individuals, seven 
men and four women, with an American for chairman, 
and a Frenchman for secretary, and two Vice-Chairmen. 

Group 61 contained thirty classes. Within this group 
there was no especial exhibit by women, although their 
work stood out in prominence. 

The most striking display was the corset display of 
Birdsey and Sumers, of New York. The corsets were 
shown on wax half-size figures, the color scheme being 
carried out in detail to match the corset. The most prom- 
inent figure was one done in white satin and real lace 
with jewel clasps, etc. This display from its artistic ar- 
rangement and elegant materials was in conformity 
with the French exhibits. With the exception of the 
jewels, it was purely of American production; and the 
arrangement and display of the exhibit were due to an 
American woman, an employee of the manufacturer. 

Another notable display was that of Kops Brothers, 
of New York. They exhibited the "Nemo" corset and 
the "Smart Set," in an artistic manner. The arrange- 
ment of this display was also due to a woman. 

Strouse-Adler and Company, New York City, showed 
a practical exhibit of what was termed by the exposi- 
tion officials a " Live Exhibit," manufacturing garments 
from start to finish, and was an attractive display. These 
demonstrations were by women. 


In the exhibit of the American Hosiery Company, 
New Britain, Conn., the goods were up to the high 
standard of the " Grand Prix." 

The Lewis Knitting Company, Janesville, Wis., 
made an attractive display, and the writer was told at 
this exhibit that the garments were brought to a high 
state of perfection through the ingenuity of Mrs. Lewis. 

The Wayne Knitting Mills, Fort Wayne, Indiana, 
made a very beautiful display of fine knit goods, the 
work of women. 

The Kleinert Rubber Company, New York City, 
made an artistic display of fancy things, and were as- 
sisted in the arrangement of same by a woman. This 
exhibit should have special mention for having had 
everything in place and on time before opening day, 
which could not be said of many others. I was told that 
here also many of the improvements were the sugges- 
tions of women. 

Many of the finest exhibits in this group were ladies' 
lingerie. There were very many creditable exhibits of 
women's underwear, the work of their hands, and mar- 
velous creations in bead embroidery, lace, and artificial 

A most brilliant display was made by the Rosenthal- 
Sloan Millinery Company, consisting of artificial flowers, 
manufactured by women. This artistic display was said 
to have been suggested and carried out in detail by a 
woman. A unique feature of this display was a map 
of the United States, each state being formed with its 
adopted flower, the states being outlined in goldenrod, 
the proposed national flower. 

The writer understood that in some of the underwear 


and hosiery mills women were superintendents of de- 
partments, and employed in great numbers in other 
work, the proportion of women to men being between 
80 and 90 per cent. 

The J. B. Stetson Company, of Philadelphia, Penn., 
made a good practical display of hats, and in their line 
the finished product was equal to any in the world, and 
showed great progress since the Columbian Exposition, 
when the writer had the pleasure of judging their ex- 
hibit. The average of woman's work is about equal. 

In this Group the advancement in special industries 
has been in the processes of women's work, in the knit 
goods and corsets, which show greatest improvement. 
The creditable work shown in the arrangement and 
display of exhibits, by suggestions and carrying out of 
detail by women, leads one to think that women are 
more remarkable along these lines of work and have 
accomplished more in the last eleven years, since the 
time of the Chicago Exposition, than at any time in 
the past. 

Their work was more individualized in former expo- 
sitions, while in the latter it' was impossible to draw 
comparisons in the advancement or success of women's 
work, the work not being placed in such a way as to 
enable one to judge whether it was solely that of women 
or men. All work was exhibited as the work of mankind 
in general and could not be classified under the head 
of either women's or men's work. 

Where manufacturers were questioned relative to the 
percentage of women working in their establishments, 
they gladly answered the questions. 

No woman received an award in this group. 


Among the useful and distinctive inventions shown 
were the garter supporters, well known to be the inven- 
tion of a woman. 

The underwear in general, corsets and accessories, 
are more useful and more healthful from a physical 
standpoint; especially the corsets of to-day. This is 
an advancement. 

There was more ingenuity displayed in the installa- 
tion and taste in artistic arrangement of the exhibits, 
making them of greater value as exposition attractions. 
In former expositions, Philadelphia was experimental, 
the World's Columbian Exposition educational, whereas 
the Louisiana Purchase Exposition was exploitive. 

There is no reason why women should not have a 
large representation, if not equal with men in all expo- 
sitions. While they may not be the real inventors of the 
machines, devices, etc., they many times are the suggest- 
ers. Being the spenders and buyers for the home and 
family, they are more competent as judges of merchan- 
dise of all kinds, and quicker to note improvements. 

In the work of the world, especially in anything per- 
taining to the home, educational matters, arts and pro- 
fessions, women hold such a prominent place to-day, 
almost exclusively doing the work in the manufacture 
of articles and habiliments for creature comforts, that 
it is impossible to ignore them. 


{Jury composed of nineteen persons) 

In previous world's fairs they were called judges, 
but at this one they were " Jurors." 


{Appointed October 2, 1902) 

• '■■a-. 


It would be well to dwell upon the vastness of the 
work accomplished by the petit jury within a brief pe- 
riod of time; for they were in constant work for twenty 
days from morning till night, visiting the many ex- 
hibits. Upon examination the value of the commodity 
or product was decided and the usefulness of the same, 
and comparisons made with similar exhibits; consulta- 
tion in jury meetings, where the many good points of 
the exhibits were presented and discussed, and a final 
decision was reached by vote of the jury as a whole. 

The various machines were for the manufacture of 
women's habiliments, with the much-needed garment- 
drafting machine, which, if not invented by women, was 
at their suggestion, and creation of the demand for sup- 

The up-to-date paper patterns, wax figures, papier- 
mache forms and milliners' findings, sewing machines, 
made the grand whole. The finished products were the 
marvelous creations of her hands; for, as truly said, 
man did invent these machines, but women work and 
bring forth the grand finale; therefore, one is not com- 
plete without the other. In all things it takes the good 
work of men and women to complete the whole. And 
this applies to jury work as well. 

From the writer's experience in expositions up to 
date, she would approve the combination of the John 
Boyd Thacher individual judge and diploma systems, 
together with the bronze, silver, gold, and grand prix, 
which would be preferable from an educational stand- 
point, and also to show to the world what the medal was 
given for. Also the group or petit jury doing the work 
should combine with a larger jury, and perhaps a court 


of appeal, it being impossible for any one in a higher 
court to know the why and the wherefore of the workers 
of the petit jury. And as far as the writer could learn, 
it was a consensus of opinion of both exhibitors and 
jurors, as heretofore stated, that the opportunity to 
hold to the last was preferable. 

As an observer of the workings of world's fairs from 
the Centennial at Philadelphia, and also being closely 
allied with other great fairs, having visited same since 
that time, and being a judge heretofore, will repeat the 
general remark of exhibitors and judges of former ex- 
positions: The consensus of opinion was that "no 
world's fair was complete without a jury composed of 
men and women, a just representation," working in 
unison and perfect accord, with only one end in view: 
Justice to all. 

Group 61 (combined with 53, as above), Mrs. A. G. 
Harrow, Ottumwa, Iowa, Juror. 

Under the Group heading "Various Industries con- 
nected with Clothing," the ten classes into which it was 
divided represented: (Processes and Products.) Hats; 
hats of felt, wool, straw, silk; caps, trimmings for hats. 
Artificial flowers for dressing the hair, for dress, and for 
all other uses. Feathers. Millinery. Hair: coiffures, 
wigs, switches. Shirts and underclothing for men, women, 
and children. Hosiery of cotton, wool, silk, and floss 
silk, etc.; knitted hosiery; cravats and neckties. Corsets 
and corset-fittings. Elastic goods, suspenders, garters, 
belts. Canes, whips, riding-whips, sunshades, parasols, 
umbrellas. Buttons; buttons of china, metal, cloth, silk, 
mother-of-pearl or other shell, ivory-nut, horn, bone, 


papier-mache, etc. Buckles, eyelets, hooks and eyes, 
pins, needles, etc. Fans and handscreens. 

Mrs. Harrow reports as follows : — 

The work of Group 53, of which I was a member, 
did not take us very extensively among the women ex- 
hibitors of the Exposition. But in every instance where 
their work came under our observation or inspection 
they demonstrated their marked ability in the manner 
and taste shown in their display. And in some instances 
where their competitors were men they proved the fact 
that if their work was not superior it was at least equal 
to that of the men. 

In my opinion it is better for women's work to come 
in competition with that of men and not be separated. 

All women in general, I feel sure, must have been 
greatly benefited by having a fair representation at the 
Exposition, as it could not help but place a higher 
standard upon all women's work, and that work in par- 
ticular in which she excelled. 

And as woman's work receives benefit, and also suc- 
cess, by being placed on equal terms of comparison with 
that of men, so likewise may man's work receive helpful 
suggestions and real advancement by being brought 
into competition with the work of women. 

Group 58 (later combined with Group 59), Mrs. E. D. 
Wood, Indianapolis, Ind., Juror. 

Under the Group heading " Laces, Embroidery, and 
Trimmings," the seven classes into which it was divided 
represented : Lace made by hand ; laces, blond or gui- 


pure, wrought on pillow or with the needle, or crochet, 
made of flax, cotton, silk, wool, gold, silver, or other 
threads. Laces made by machinery; tulles, plain or 
embroidered; imitation lace, blond and guipure, in 
thread of every kind. Embroidery made by hand; em- 
broidery by needle or crochet with thread of every kind, 
on all kinds of grounds (fabric, net, tulle, skin, etc.), 
including needlework upon canvas as well as embroid- 
ery applique, or ornamented with gems, pearls, jet, 
spangles, of metal or other material, feathers, shells, 
etc. Embroidery made by machinery, with the founda- 
tion preserved, or with the foundation cut' or burned 
away. Trimmings; galloons, lace or braids, fringes, 
tassels, all kinds of applique and ornamental work, 
hand-made or woven, for millinery or garments, ecclesi- 
astical vestments, civil or military uniforms; for furni- 
ture, saddlery, carriages, etc.; threads and plates of 
metal, gold or silver, real or imitation, spangles, chenilles, 
and all other articles used for trimmings. Church 
embroidery; church ornaments and linen; altar-cloths, 
banners, and other objects for religious ceremonies in 
fabrics ornamented with lace, embroideries, and trim- 
mings. Curtains with lace, guipure, or embroidery, 
upon tulle or fabrics; blinds, screens, portieres, lam- 
brequins, and other draperies, ornamented with lace, 
embroidery, and trimmings. 

Mrs. Wood writes : — 

Our jury was a large one, — about thirty members. 
They came from France, Germany, Austria-Hungary, 
China, Japan, Great Britain, Mexico, Porto Rico; the 


other members were Americans and represented the 
different states. The work we were to do was what 
was known as " Groups fifty-eight and fifty-nine," and 
covered so much ground we found that in order to finish 
in the required time we should have to divide our jury, 
so that some were detailed to examine embroidery, 
others costumes, trimming, laces, etc. I was on the lace 
committee, — laces made by hand, wrought on pillows, 
by needle or crochet, silk, wool, gold, silver, or thread, 
machine-made laces, imitation, embroidered tulles, 
and lace curtains. It would be impossible to describe 
the beauties of the lovely laces, the time, patience, and 
labor given to them. We examined the exhibits in the 
Manufactures' Building, Varied Industries, all foreign 
buildings. The work done by women in the Filipino, 
Porto Rican, Mexican, and Alaskan exhibits was as fine 
in texture and as beautiful as imported laces. The work 
in every instance was as handsome as that shown at the 
Chicago World's Fair, but perhaps not on so large a scale. 
I was a member of a committee of four appointed to 
adjust the losses on the handsome imported costumes 
and wraps in the French section that were damaged 
during a wind and rain storm that swept over the Ex- 
position Grounds during the summer, and damaged the 
building and the immense glass cases containing these 
valuable goods, the loss of which amounted to hundreds 
of dollars to the Exposition Company. 

Group 59 (combined with Group 58 above), Mrs. 
William S. Major, Shelbyville, Ind., Juror. 
Under the Group heading "Industries producing 
Wearing Apparel for Men, Women, and Children," the 


four classes into which it was divided represented: 
Clothing to measure for men and boys; ordinary cos- 
tumes, suits for hunting and riding, leather breeches 
and similar articles ; suits for gymnastic uses and games, 
military and civil uniforms, campaign clothing of spe- 
cial types, robes and costumes for magistrates, mem- 
bers of the bar, professors, ecclesiastics, etc., liveries, 
various costumes for children. Clothing, ready-made 
for men and boys. Clothing to measure for women 
and girls; dresses, vests, jackets, cloaks (made by 
ladies' tailors, dressmakers, or cloakmakers), riding- 
habits, sporting suits. Clothing ready-made for women 
and girls. Patterns. 

Mrs. Major reports as follows : — 

In Group 58, Department of Manufactures, the pro- 
portional number of exhibits by women contained in 
these classes was small, — I should think about 10 per 
cent. Groups 58 and 59 exhibited laces, embroideries, 
trimmings, decorations for gowns, costumes and wraps, 
drawn work, and Tenneriffe. Art needlework was the 
most striking exhibit by women in that department. 
Women showed great advancement in each industry, 
without question. Very few exhibits were installed by 
foreign women ; the foreign costumes were largely from 
the man tailor. The needlework in the Visayan Village 
of the Filipino exhibit was of a very high order, but 
no provision was made to grant awards upon this, the 
Filipino exhibit, and Miss Anna Woolf, of St. Louis, 
and I, called the attention of the authorities to the de- 
serving character of the exhibit and made a plea for 


awards to be made by the higher jurors, and they pro- 
mised to do so. I do not know whether it was done or 
not, however, but there was no woman's work in the 
whole Louisiana Purchase Exposition more deserving 
or of higher grade than the needlework in that village 
exhibit. Enough cannot be said of these little workers. 
The present age is one of superiority, in which women 
not only show their ability, but each year they are granted 
more, and more widespread becomes their ability to 
grasp all vocations and fill them most creditably. 

I am confident there was no question of the interest 
shown by men in woman's work, in fact, I think it at- 
tracted more visitors, and the results would not have 
been better if their work had been separately exhibited. 

The work shown at the Louisiana Purchase Expo- 
sition was on a much greater and higher plane than 
ever has been exhibited before. Where women ex- 
hibited, they received a greater number of awards in 
proportion. Miss Mary Williamson was an original 
designer of artistic needlework, showing exceptional 
talent, and was awarded a Grand Prix for her designs. 

I attended the Paris Exposition of 1878, also the 
Centennial at Philadelphia, in 1876, spent much time 
at the Columbian World's Fair in Chicago, and possess 
a diploma and gold medal for my artistic needlework 
exhibited at the Columbian Exposition. 

Miss Margaret Summers, of Louisville, Ky., was 
also a juror in the above combined Groups 58 and 59, 
and writes : — 

In Group 59 the costumes made by men were about 
twice as many as those made by women, though the 



handsomest of the exhibits was the work of a woman, 
CaroHne, of Chicago. 

All the work done by women showed a great improve- 
ment over that exhibited at the Chicago Exposition, 
not only in the cut and design, but in the artistic finish 
and the care given to every detail. 

The handwork was a special feature of all the gar- 
ments for women in the lingerie, gowns, and manteaux. 

The most intricate designs were executed in a man- 
ner betokening the true artist, and none but those edu- 
cated in the art of combining colors, and in designing, 
could have obtained the results seen at St. Louis. 

The tendency in all garments for women, however, 
was towards the ornate rather than the simple, and 
with but few exceptions, every gown, every wrap, and 
all the lingerie was most elaborate. But the hand of the 
true artist was shown in these garments, in that they 
were beautiful and in good taste, in spite of their elab- 

It would have been advantageous if the women's 
work had been arranged separately from the men's, 
because they would have attracted more attention as 
a woman's exhibit fer se^ and would therefore have 
called greater attention to the progress women have 
made in these lines. In other words, the separate ex- 
hibit would have served better for a comparative study 
of woman's advancement in the past ten years. 

There was a greater variety of woman's work than 
was shown at the Chicago Exposition, and that in itself 
showed an advancement. The greater scope gave evi- 
dence of a broadening influence, and the women showed 
themselves proficient in all they undertook. 


As compared with the work of men, I should say that 
the woman's exhibit had every right to be placed side 
by side with the men's, just as was done. 

In Group 58 was eventually placed the wonderful 
piece of embroidery of the "Sistine Madonna," the 
work of Miss Ripberger, of Berlin. The linen upon 
which the life-like figures were wrought was probably 
6x8 feet in size, and in order to reproduce the colors, 
the silk had been matched with the colors in the origi- 
nal painting. The reproduction of Raphael's wonder- 
ful work was a marvel of artistic ability and patience, 
and was exquisitely executed. It justly deserved the 
Grand Prix accorded it. 

Department H, Agriculture, Mr. Frederic W. Taylor, 
Chief, comprised 27 Groups and 137 Classes, the Board 
of Lady Managers being represented in but five 

Group 78, Mrs. W. H. Felton, of Cartersville, Ga., 


Under the heading of "Farm Equipment, Methods 
of Improving Lands," the three classes into which it 
was divided represented: Specimens of various sys- 
tems of farming. Plans and models of farm buildings; 
general arrangement; stables, sheep-folds, barns, pig- 
sties, breeding-grounds ; special arrangements for breed- 
ing and fattening cattle ; granaries and silos ; furniture 
for stables, barns, kennels, etc. Material, and appliances 
used in agricultural engineering; reclaiming of marshes; 
drainage; irrigation. 


Mrs. Felton says in a letter accompanying her re- 
port : — 

In accordance with your oflScial request I have pre- 
pared a short resume of the work as juror in Group 
Jury No. 78, It was the Central Group, — I mean, the 
leading Group in the Department of Agriculture. There 
were no exhibits by women, because we passed upon 
matters so immense that it was the work of states and 
foreign governments, rather than of individuals, that 
was noted. 

Mrs. Felton's report is as follows: — 

I was selected as a juror for Group Jury No. 78, and 
entered upon the duties assigned me, on September 
1, 1904. 

Group Jury No. 78 organized, and after the Chair- 
man and Vice-Chairman were selected, I was made 
Secretary, — which position I held until the minutes 
and report were handed in to the oflSce of Hon. Fred. 
W. Taylor, Chief of Department of Agriculture, on 
September 19. 

As Secretary, the work of the Group Jury No. 78 
came immediately under my supervision, and I found 
the work exceedingly pleasant, and my colleagues (all 
the members were gentlemen except myself) were most 
agreeable, and we concluded our work without the least 
friction or antagonism to the close. 

Group No. 78 was the first on the list, in the General 
Department of Agriculture. It covered exhibits on main 
lines, — other groups taking what I might term sub- 


We examined farm improvement as related to in- 
ventions and devices which were intended as fixtures 
to farm buildings. Group No. 79 was devoted to such 
exhibits as were movable. 

To illustrate: No. 78 collected data and awarded 
prizes on barn gates, doors, hay carriers, silos, wind- 
mills, pumps, etc., while No. 79 was concerned with 
threshers, plows, and the various implements which are 
not sold with farm buildings as necessary fixtures. 

Having lived an active life on a Georgia plantation 
for fifty years, all these matters were of exceeding in- 
terest to the Secretary, although a woman. 

Our jury made an exhaustive examination of the ex- 
hibits of irrigation models, — with various reports and 
statistics, that were carried to St. Louis. Germany made 
the finest exhibit, as to number and completeness, and 
I feel sure there never has been such a far-reaching 
display of irrigation methods in the United States be- 
fore. I was intimately connected with the Columbian 
Exposition, as a Lady Manager from Georgia, and 
Chairman of the Woman's Executive Committee in 
the Cotton States and International Exposition, and 
I feel I speak advisedly when I say that nothing I have 
ever seen compares with the agricultural exhibits of 
the St. Louis Exposition, as uncovered to my view in 
performing the duties of a juror, especially in regard to 
the greatest problem of the twentieth century, namely, 
in regard to irrigation, and its future possibilities, for 
our various States and Territories. You will under- 
stand, of course, women had no part in the various 
governmental works, where land has been reclaimed 
and converted into the finest farming lands known to 


this era, but in the results which followed such reclama- 
tion the farmer's wife and daughter has been seen and 
felt everywhere, although no percentage of women's 
work was noted in the exhibits examined by Group 
Jury No. 78. 

Germany, Italy, Belgium, and France were prominent, 
and the States of Utah, Montana, California, and Louis- 
iana gave most satisfactory evidences of advanced pro- 
gress in farming methods by irrigation. 

In the Belgian Exhibit we were shown the beautiful 
and remarkable flax, grown in the irrigated districts, 
the material from which the finest lace, known as the 
Brussels product, is constructed. If the investigation 
had been pursued to the limit, every benefit or profit, 
or financial opportunity resulting from the improve- 
ment of farms, abroad or at home, touches somewhere 
the lives of our farm women, in comfort and happiness. 

Our jury passed upon the magnificent exhibit made 
by the State of Missouri, in the Agricultural Palace, 
the finest State exhibit known to this continent, up to 
date, in agriculture. 

The construction of an elegant lay figure, made en- 
tirely of corn-shucks and corn-silks, representing a lady 
of style and fashion, was the handiwork of a woman, 
and richly deserved the prize that was awarded. 

Group No. 78 being confined to general lines, and 
covering the idea of farm improvement on an extended 
scale, grasping, as it were, the great and fundamental 
principles of modern agriculture, the work of the sexes 
was not indicated by the exhibitors. The percentage of 
each was not required by instructions given to Group 
Jury No. 78. 


{Appointed October 2, 1902) 


It gives me great pleasure to thank you and the Board 
of Lady Managers for kind attentions, and the oppor- 
tunity for pleasure and instruction in this Group Jury 
work; and to assure you that it was my constant aim 
and purpose to prove to my colleagues and to Chief 
Taylor that your trust and confidence had not been 
misplaced in assigning me to jury duty in so important 
a place. 

Group 84 — under the Group heading "Vegetable 
Food Products, — Agricultural Seeds" — was divided 
into eight classes, which represented: Cereals: wheat, 
rye, barley, maize, millet, and other cereals in sheaves 
or in grain. Legumes and their seeds: beans, peas, 
lentils, etc. Tubers and roots and their seeds : potatoes, 
beets, carrots, turnips, radishes, etc. Miscellaneous 
vegetables and their seeds: cabbages, peppers, arti- 
chokes, mushrooms, cresses, etc. Sugar-producing 
plants : beets, cane, sorghum, etc. Miscellaneous plants 
and their products: coffee, tea, cocoa, etc. Oil-pro- 
ducing plants and their products. Forage, growing, 
green, cured, or in silos; fodder for cattle; forage, 
grass and field seeds. 

Neither the Principal nor Alternate appointed in this 
Group was able to serve. 

Group 89, Mrs. E. L. Lamb, Jackson, Miss., Juror. 

Under the Group heading "Preserved Meat, Fish, 
Vegetables, and Fruit," the eight classes into which it 
was divided represented: Meat preserved by any 
process. Salted meats, canned meats. Meat and soup 
tablets. Meat extracts. Various pork products. Fish 


preserved by any process. Salt fish, fish in barrels, cod, 
herring, etc. Fish preserved in oil; tunny, sardines, 
anchovies. Canned lobsters, canned oysters, canned 
shrimps. Vegetables preserved by various processes. 
Fruits dried or prepared, prunes, figs, raisins, dates. 
Fruits preserved without sugar. Fruits, canned, in tins, 
or in glass. Army and Navy commissary stores and 

No report. 

Group 88, Mrs. F. H. Pugh, Bellevue, Nebraska, 


Under the Group heading "Bread and Pastry," the 
two classes into which it was divided represented: 
Breads, with or without yeast, fancy breads, and breads 
in moulds, compressed breads for travelers, military 
campaigns, etc. Ship biscuits. Yeasts. Baking pow- 
ders. Pastry of various kinds peculiar to each country. 
Gingerbread and dry cakes for keeping. 

Mrs. Pugh reports substantially as follows: — 

The nature of the exhibits in Group 88 were Angel 
Food Cake, Pickles, Bread, Fruit Cake, Purina Mills 
Exhibit, the most striking exhibit being a California fruit 
cake, made by Mrs. Rose E. Bailey, which weighed 81 
pounds . The exhibits showed advancement in the science 
of good cooking, all the exhibits being installed by Amer- 
ican women, no foreign women, that I can recall, par- 
ticipating, and the display was more creditable than at 
the Chicago Exposition, in that the exhibitors showed 


more confidence in themselves and their work, more at- 
tention being given also to the purity and healthfulness 
of their food exhibits. Their work, as shown at the 
Louisiana Purchase Exposition, would most certainly 
prove helpful or suggestive to those interested in the 
advancement and success of women's work by their 
exhibition of success already achieved, and the work of 
women, it is believed, was as well appreciated when 
placed by the side of that of men, and the results would 
not have been better had their work been separately 
exhibited. No manufacturers that I knew of, excepting 
the Purina Mills (Ralston) Exhibition, were asked to 
state the percentage of woman's work that entered into 
the manufacture of their special exhibits, and only by 
one or two exhibits was it in a measure indicated in any 
way which part had been performed by women, which 
by men; but, in my opinion, probably about one tenth 
of the work in this Group was performed by women. 
There were eight women exliibitors out of a total of 
sixty-three applications. 

In the exhibits in this department daintier manipula- 
tion and more regard for purity of foods was shown than 
in the past; and in the construction of individual booths, 
Mrs. Buchanan's Pickles, Mrs. Gautz (North Western 
Yeast Company), and Mrs. Haffner's Swansdown Flour 
deserve special mention. The exhibits of the women 
did not show special development of original inventions, 
but were mainly improvements, and greater skill in 
handling the products, the greatest labor-saving ma- 
chine being Werner's Domestic Machinery, but it is 
presumed this is the invention of man only, and that 
while women took no part in constructing that, their 


installations were a credit to the most wonderful of all 
expositions, and were a great attraction to visitors. 

I am frank to say that as I look back upon our work 
there the women who made the greatest effort to add 
to the attractiveness of the Agricultural Palace did not 
receive all the awards they deserved; namely, Mrs. 
Rose E. Bailev, to whom was awarded a Grand Prize 
for the ingeniousness of her exhibit, never heard of the 
award; Mrs. Bertha E. Haffner, representing Swans- 
down Flour, should have had a Grand Prize for her 
cakes, since a Grand Prize was awarded Mrs. Gautz 
for Bread. This was the consensus of opinion of jurors 
in Group 88. 

The coffee exhibits employing women, the flours, 
Pillsbury, Washburne and Crosby, the Banana flours, 
North Dakota Flour Exhibitors, Sanitas Nut Company, 
Breakfast Foods, were all in the charge of women, all 
of whom deserve special mention for their unfailing 
courtesies to sight-seers. 

It warms my heart yet, just to think of the dear old 
Palace of Agriculture, and the many delightful hours 
spent there in our work. I desire specially to commend 
the kindness received by those in charge of the Brazilian 
Pavilion and Machin Brothers' French Bakery. 

Group 90, Miss Carolyn Hempstead (now Mrs. C. 
M. F. Riley), Little Rock, Arkansas, Juror. 

Under the Group heading " Sugar and Confectionery, 
Condiments and Relishes," the eight classes into which 
it was divided represented: Sugar. Glucose. Confec- 
tionery. Chocolate. Brandied fruits, preserves, jellies. 
Coffee, tea, substitutes for coffee; mate, chicory, and 


sweet acorns. Vinegar. Table salt. Spices and extracts : 
pepper, cinnamon, allspice, etc.; flavoring extracts. 
Mixed condiments and relishes; mustard, curries, 
sauces, etc. 

Mrs. Riley reports as follows : — 

Department of Agriculture, Group 90. In this group 
there were not as many women exhibitors as seemingly 
might have been expected, as women have always been 
the exponents of this domestic science, and have been 
called the "ministering angels" to man's needs; have 
feasted his eyes and fed his stomach from time imme- 
morial with their sweetmeats, — Eve, even, perhaps 
made Adam happy with sun-dried figs! Who knows.'' 

All told, there were not over thirty women exhibitors, 
and the exhibits consisted of preserves, jellies, jams, 
marmalades, pickles, relishes, candied fruits, crystal- 
lized flowers, excellent in their quality and most beau- 
tifully put up, and hygienically sealed. In this, the sci- 
ence of our grandmothers, much of their wisdom and 
practice clings to the art of producing and effecting the 
good results which were displayed before us; but if 
the exhibitors did have recourse to the old cookery 
books, the manner of showing the exhibits, the attract- 
ive booths, the managing ability, the business methods, 
were the attributes of the woman of to-day, the advanc- 
ing, the far-seeing business woman. 

There were no foreigners in this class, — the ex- 
hibitors of the guava jellies and foreign preserves were 
men. Man in all countries has been prone to reach out 
and gather in the best that woman has had to give, and 


in this branch of trade has enlarged and sometimes 
— may I add — adulterated the old recipes, and with 
his money and his army of employees has established 
great pickling and preserving plants, designed to feed 
the world's masses. 

In most cases the pureness, the sweetness, the old 
touch of "home-made" are gone, and only when the do- 
mestic woman by dint of hard pressure has been driven 
out into the world to gain her own livelihood has this 
pure home-made article been put upon the market. 
"Pinmoney" pickles are now a household word, — 
made by a woman in Virginia, who started by making 
for her friends and neighbors, — but whose industry has 
grown now to immense proportions. 

In the exhibits by women at the St. Louis Exposi- 
tion two exhibits were of unusual merit, — one a fruit 
cake containing forty-one varieties of preserved fruits, 
and weighing eighty-one pounds, made by Mrs. Rose 
A. Bailey of California. Mrs. Bailey preserved these 
fruits in sugar only. Her collection of jellies, etc., re- 
ceived the warmest praise, and so much has been said 
that she is now contemplating the forwarding of a 
"Home-prepared Fruit Agency" to be handled by wo- 
men only. 

The other exhibit was the crystallized rose-leaves and 
violets, by another California woman, so made that the 
sugar could be peeled off, leaving the rose-leaf or violet 
intact and perfect in its coloring and form. 

These were the odd and new exhibits. A long line of 
clear jellies and good pickles and toothsome relishes 
was most willingly judged and more willingly tasted. 
A most attractive exhibit of these was in the booth 


of Mrs. Nathalie Claibourne Buchanan, representing 
an old Virginia kitchen, its open fireplace with the fire- 
logs in the background, the high mantel with its rows 
of preserves and pickles, and a dear old black "mammy" 
in kerchief and bandanna as a most fitting setting to 
the scene. 

No woman received the highest award, the Grand 
Prix, but some were given the gold medal. 

In the exhibits of the large manufacturers there was 
no way to tell what part of the labor had been per- 
formed by women, but on the printed forms the propor- 
tion of women laborers was quite often given, but it is 
a known fact that two thirds of the work of these large 
factories is done by women and girls. 

This should be a wide avenue for women to enter the 
marts of life, but on the small scale it is so underpaid in 
proportion to the labor expended that but few are bold 
enough to enter. 

Department J, Horticulture, Mr. Frederic W. Tay- 
lor, Chief, comprised 7 Groups and 27 Classes, the 
Board of Lady Managers being represented in but one 

Group 107, Mrs. M. B. R. Day, Frankfort, Ky., 


Under the Group heading "Pomology," the six 
classes into which it was divided represented: Poma- 
ceous and stone fruits : apples, pears, quinces ; cherries, 
plums, peaches, apricots, nectarines, etc. Citrus fruits : 
oranges, lemons, limes, shaddocks, pomelos, etc. Trop- 
ical and sub-tropical fruits : pineapples, bananas, guavas. 


mangoes, tamarinds, figs, olives, sapodillas, etc. Small 
fruits: strawberries, raspberries, blackberries, dew- 
berries, gooseberries, currants, etc. Nuts: almonds, 
chestnuts, filberts, pecans, hickory-nuts, walnuts, etc. 
Casts and models of fruits in wax, plaster, etc. 

Mrs. Day says in substance in her replies to the ques- 
tions : That she cannot give an approximate number of 
the women who exhibited in this group, but that the 
nature of the exhibits shown were fruits, — grapes, ap- 
ples, etc., and flowers, the most striking exhibits being 
by florists and fruit culturists, and that women have 
entered many more branches of this work in recent 
years; that she believes their work shown at the Louis- 
iana Purchase Exposition would prove helpful and sug- 
gestive by reason of the great care taken in the exhibits. 
Mrs. Day does not think any difference was shown in ap- 
preciation of the exhibits of women when placed by the 
side of men, and hardly thinks the result would have 
been better had the work of women been separately 
exhibited. This seems to be almost the only department 
where exhibits were shown in such manner as to indicate 
whether they were the work of men or women, as all 
exhibits were marked distinctly with the name of the 
owner of fruit-farm, or florist, the exhibits of New Mexico 
and Oklahoma being each in charge of very intelligent 
women, and some of the finest fruit-farms sending 
exhibits were owned by women, and women also made 
some of the best displays of fruits and flowers. 

Department N, Anthropology, Prof. W. J. McGee, 
Chief, comprised 4 Groups and 5 Classes, the Board of 
Lady Managers being accorded representation upon each. 


Group 126, Miss Alice C. Fletcher, Washington, 
D. C, Juror. 

Under the Group heading "Somatology," the two 
classes into which it was divided represented : Physical 
characteristics of man; the comparative and special 
anatomy of races and peoples ; specimens, casts, meas- 
urements, charts, and photographs representing typical 
and comparative characteristics. Anthropometry ; meas- 
urements, charts, diagrams, etc., showing the methods 
and results of comparative studies on the physical struc- 
ture of living races; instruments and appliances used 
in anthropometric investigations. 

Miss Fletcher reports : — 

In the Department of Anthropology there were no 
distinctive exhibits by women that I can recall, for the 
work of women in that field was represented in the gen- 
eral student body of the science. 

In Archaeology, Mrs. Zelia Nuttall's investigations 
in Mexico were represented in the publications of the 
Peabody Museum of Harvard University and of the 
University of California. Miss Boyd's remarkable ex- 
cavations at Gournia, Crete, were in connection with the 
Archaeological Institute of America, and the University 
of Pennsylvania. The contributions of these two and of 
Miss Breton, an Englishwoman, who has made copies 
in color of the disappearing mural decorations in Cen- 
tral America, rank among the recent notable archaeo- 
logical researches. 

In Somatology, the exhibit of Bryn Mawr College 
showed so marked a comprehension of the value of this 


line of study and its observations, and the results, in this 
branch of science were so clearly and well presented 
as to receive a special award. 

In Ethnology, the work of women in this branch was 
included in the publications of scientific bodies and 
universities. In the collections exhibited, the articles 
obtained by women were indiscriminately arranged 
with those gathered by men, so as to make the exhibits 
of value and of interest. 

In reply to the questions as to whether woman's work 
was as well appreciated when placed side by side with 
that of men, as when separately exhibited, I would say : 
That the trend of opinion at the present time is to judge 
of work by its character and quality rather than by the 
sex of the worker. Every woman student desires only 
such judgment to be passed on her work, and is grateful 
that the day has come when she can be so dealt 

Again, as to a comparison between the exhibits of 
woman's work at previous expositions and at the one 
held in St. Louis; as I have visited nearly all since that 
of the Centennial, I think that no one could fail to note 
the fairer estimate put on woman's work at the recent 
exposition than was ever before granted. From the 
days of the childhood of the race to the present time it 
has always been impossible to draw a hard and fast line 
between the labors of men and those of women; their 
work has continually interchanged and overlapped. 
What has been woman's work in one age has become 
man's in another. The history of textile industries is 
a well-known case in point. Such being the fact, it is in 
keeping with the truth of the past and the present time 


not to attempt to exhibit separately that 'which has 
always been interwoven. 

In Anthropology the number of women students is 
small, but the work accomplished by these few has been 
creditable, and has received its due recognition. 

The Indian School exhibit came under the Depart- 
ment of Anthropology, and several women received 
awards for special accomplishments. 

Looking over the field of woman's work as presented 
at the St. Louis Exposition, one is convinced of the 
growth of a healthful recognition of her labors in the 
upbuilding of social life, both in the ideal and the prac- 
tical, and cannot fail to note the uses to which she is 
putting the widening opportunities for her higher edu- 

Group 127, Mrs. Alice Palmer Henderson, of Tacoma, 
Wash., Juror. 

Under the Group heading "Ethnology," there was 
but one class, representing: Illustration of the growth 
of culture; the origin and development of arts and in- 
dustries; ceremonies, religious, rites and games; social 
and domestic manners and customs; languages and 
origin of writing. 

Mrs. Henderson says : — 

In the Department of Anthropology in the Louisiana 
Purchase Exposition, there were but few individual ex- 
hibits, those being principally in the section of history. 
Women have always been the chief heralds of family 
and conservators of family records, and relics. The 


Daughters of the Revolution have stimulated research, 
restoration, and preservation along historical lines. For 
the first time in exposition management a department 
of history had its own commissioner, and that commis- 
sioner was a woman. Miss Hayward justified this de- 
cidedly new step by her services. I think I am right in 
asserting that she was the first woman commissioner 
on the board of any international exposition.* The sec- 
tion of history was part of the Department of Anthro- 

New, too, was representation on the jury of Anthro- 
pology of workers in Indian affairs as represented in the 
model Indian school, containing, as it did, so large a 
proportion of women's work in exhibits from different 
tribes and sections of the country, and of the suggested 
work of the white women teachers. Of these latter was 
the juror, Miss Peters, of the domestic science depart- 
ment. Advancement along these lines since the Colum- 
bian Exposition is undoubted except in the matter of 
such Indian arts as basketry and rug-making. If there 
be any reason for the existence of a rafiia basket in hide- 
ous aniline hues, it doth not yet appear. I think this 
bastard has usurped the place of the Indians' beautiful 
art of long descent, and it is distressing. White teachers 
who presume to instruct the Indians in basket-making, 
or who substitute hairpin lace and the like, have much 
to answer for. 

I noted no particular advance in Anthropology among 
women since the Columbian Exposition, when I served 

* Mrs. Potter Palmer and Mrs. Daniel Manning were appointed by 
President McKinley to serve as Commissioners at the Paris Exposition, 


(Appointed October 3, 1002) 


upon the same jury in the same distinguished company, 
Mrs. Zelia Nuttall and Miss Alice Fletcher. In other 
more tangible departments, so to speak, and at other 
expositions, I have noted a steady advance in woman's 
work, and m the spread of her domain. The time has 
long past when it should be segregated, as kindergarten 
efforts are from regular school work. 

I recall no anthropological exhibit by foreign women 
at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition. In fact, Ameri- 
can women undoubtedly lead in such study, investiga- 
tion, exploration, and publication. In their own country 
the opportunity is great, especially in ethnology, because 
of the thousands of barbarous people among us and sav- 
ages upon our borders. Tribes still in the stone age are 
our actual contemporaries. Women, quick to grasp, 
able to ingratiate themselves, are peculiarly fitted to 
gather the folklore of the Indians, their songs and myths, 
and ceremonials, weird, rich, beautiful as those of the 
ancient Greeks. Miss Fletcher, who at St. Louis served 
upon the section of psychometry, has done much for 
both ethnology and the coming school of American music 
in rescuing and preserving the Indian songs. 

What has been accomplished in archaeology by wo- 
men was best exhibited in the attainments, translations, 
and publications of another member of the jury of An- 
thropology, Mrs. Zelia Nuttall, as well known in Europe 
as in this country. Woman's acknowledged intuition, 
patience, and enthusiasm are factors of great value in 
the problem of reducing to one common denominator 
the life and works of by-gone man from his archaeological 

It seems to me of great importance to emphasize the 


work of women at such expositions. What woman has 
done, woman can do, is an invaluable suggestion, borne 
in upon many minds, of latent possibilities which, de- 
veloped, might greatly benefit humanity. The most 
important exhibits at any great exposition are never 
seen, only felt. 

Miss Cora Peters, Department of the Interior, United 
States Indian Service, Chilocco, Okla., as mentioned by 
Mrs. Henderson, also served in this Department, and 
briefly says : — 

I have not been able to give very definite replies, as I 
had so little time to investigate the work. I served on the 
section of Indian Education, and the work of the women 
was usually better than that of the men, and in every 
case they were more persistent in their efforts. It seems 
to me that there are more opportunities open to women 
along educational lines, especially that of Domestic 
Economy. The extent of women's influence in the home 
will never be known, so I am very glad that at present 
there is a great interest taken in that subject. 

Miss Peters further says : The nature of the exhibits 
was historical, such as those of Indian Relics, by the 
Daughters of the American Revolution, and the exhibit 
in the Alaska Building, the latter being the most strik- 
ing exhibit in the department. The women had more 
displays than men, and some of their work was very 
creditable, and in some cases was as well appreciated 
when placed by the side of that of men; in one case it 
might have been more beneficial in result had it been 
separately exhibited, but as a whole I think women were 


given due consideration. The proportion of the work 
performed by women was not as large in proportion as 
that performed by the men, but in the Indian section of 
which I was a juror I think the awards were about 
evenly divided. The greater part of the exhibits con- 
sisted of collections of relics, and the exhibits by women 
showed great skill and ingenuity, and in nearly every 
case the installation of exhibits was considered very 
good, as was the taste displayed. Some of them were 
better than those by men. 

Group 128, Mrs. Zelia Nuttall, Cambridge, Mass., 

Under the Group heading "Ethnography," the one 
class represented : Races and peoples, from earliest man 
to the present time; tribal and racial exhibits, showing 
by means of specimens, groups, and photographs the 
stages of culture reached by different peoples of vari- 
ous times and under special conditions of environment. 
Families, groups, and tribes of living peoples. 

Mrs. Nuttall also served as Department Juror in 
Department N, Anthropology, under which heading 
her report will be found. 

Department O, Social Economy, Dr. Howard J. 
Rogers, Chief, comprised 13 Groups and 58 Classes, 
the Board of Lady Managers receiving representation 
in five Groups. 

Group 129, Miss Caroline Greisheimer, Washington, 
D. C, Juror. 
Under the Group heading " Study and Investigation of 
Social and Economic Conditions," the five classes into 


which it was divided represented: OflBcial bureaus and 
oflBces. Private bureaus, museums, boards of trade, 
etc. Economic and social reform associations, congresses. 
Economic serials, reviews, and other publications. 
Scholastic instruction in economics and social economy. 

Miss Greisheimer says : — 

Studies and Investigations of Exhibits, Louisiana Pur- 
chase Exposition, Social Economy, Group 129. — The 
exhibits, by means of reports and statistics, of leading 
states and countries showing the commercial and in- 
dustrial conditions of the state or country, in regard to 
exports and imports, wages, occupations, hours of daily 
labor, health statistics, educational facilities, means 
provided for industrial betterment of employees, and 
photographs and graphic charts illustrative of the above, 
no doubt attracted the attention of thousands of visitors 
at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition and will result in 
much good. Important subjects are thus brought to the 
front, and many employers and capitalists are benefited 
by the experience of others, and so go away and work 
out some plan for the betterment of the conditions of 
their employees. It opens the way for the capitalist to 
meet his workmen in the adoption of measures for har- 
monizing the interest of capital and labor, and binding 
together in mutual interest and good will the men whose 
work enriches the state, and the employer who directs 
their labor and converts its products into wages. 

The many photographs exhibited illustrating the 
line of betterment evolution and industrial commercial 
pursuits and development bring facts relating to these 


subjects before the public, and lead captains of industry 
and employers to investigate betterment institutions, and 
profit by the experience of others. They also furnish 
an idea of the large industries, progress, and natural 
resources of the country. Thus, the photographs of the 
coffee plantations of Brazil thoroughly illustrated the 
coffee industry and gave an idea of this great industry, 
its commercial value, its growth and development. The 
exhibits of New Jersey by means of photographs of 
industrial betterment institutions and industrial con- 
ditions furnished plenty of matter for studies and in- 
vestigations to students of social economics. 

Representatives of large industries, through the me- 
dium of international expositions, study the means of 
improving the productions of their factories, either by 
the use of better raw material, securing it cheaper 
by importing it direct from the producing centres, or by 
the improvement of their processes by using modern 
machinery and by the study of the social betterment 
conditions of the employees of other large industrial 

Many of the foreign governmental publications, 
reports, photographs, statistics, and graphic charts 
exhibited, showed the degree of advancement reached 
in some parts of the country with relation to these par- 
ticular subjects, and the splendid conditions and re- 
sources of the state or country. Many of these exhibits 
were beautifully illustrated, giving information of the 
social and economic conditions as well as the history, 
geography, physical resources, etc., of the state or coun- 
try. The exhibits of France, Belgium, Germany, and 
Great Britain were elaborate and systematically ar- 


ranged, and furnished a fund of information in social 
economic studies and investigations by their most emi- 
nent economists. 

The exhibits of the American Institute of Social 
Service deserve especial mention. We learn from them 
how we can aid in humanizing and elevating the spirit, 
methods, and conditions of modem life. 

This Institute had on exhibition about 2000 photo- 
graphs in ten wing-frame cabinets, which visualize and 
interpret all forms of social and industrial betterment, 
arranged as follows : — 

1. The American Institute of Social Service. 

2. Civic Betterment. 

3. Improved Housing. 

4. 5, and 6. Industrial Betterment. 

7. European Social Studies. 

8. Salvation Army and Denominational Work. 

9. Young Men's and Young Women's Christian As- 


10. Institutional Churches. 

After the Exposition, these cabinets will be put on 
permanent exhibition at the headquarters of the Insti- 
tute in New York. 

These photographs make a deep and lasting impres- 
sion upon the mind of the observer of the great work 
being done in all forms of social and industrial better- 
ment. It is an efficient way of showing the needs of the 
times created by the new conditions in the industrial 
world, and is a means of bringing together the best 
thinkers of the age to devise feasible plans for the better- 
ment of mankind and the solving of problems of social 
conditions and industrial betterment. They also show 


what is being done by the American Institute of Social 

The American Institute of Social Service is a clear- 
ing-house for exchange of facts, experiences, and 
ideas on social and industrial betterment. It is both 
a laboratory for investigation and a distributor of the 
knowledge gained. It is practically an international 
university for the study and promotion of social and 
industrial progress. Its work is done on a large and 
thorough plan, and benefits multitudes. 

The fundamental principle and purpose of the In- 
stitute is to make the experience of all available for the 
instruction of each. This principle is applicable alike 
to individuals, corporations, churches, societies, cities, 
states, and nations. 

The Institute places human experience on file. It 
welcomes inquiries from any one. The answers aim to 
be complete, or, if necessary, to refer the writer to the 
most direct and trustworthy sources. 

It furnishes expert advice for solving local problems 
to employers of every kind, to workingmen, to municipal 
officers, to teachers and ministers, to writers, students, 
and others. 

Through its many foreign collaborators, the Institute 
receives reports and is in close touch with social move- 
ments abroad. 

The Institute also arranges for addresses and lec- 
tures, with or without lantern slides, on many import- 
ant subjects such as: The Child Problem, History of 
Labor, Food, Tenements and Improved Housing, In- 
dustrial Betterment, Substitutes for the Saloon, The 
Newer Charity, Municipal Problems, Institutional 


Churches, Public Baths and Wash Houses, The Better 
New York. 

Its pubHcations are: "Social Service," an illustrated 
monthly magazine; "The Better New York," mono- 
graphs and leaflets. 

It has a specialized and growing library, with many 
foreign books and pamphlets, three thousand lantern 
slides and four thousand photographs, showing social 
and industrial conditions throughout the world. 


Plans for new factories have been modified for com- 
fort and health. Result : better workers and better work. 

Facilities for warm lunches, baths, and recreation at 
noon have been provided. Result: Hold of the saloon 

Social secretaries have been appointed in factories 
and department stores. Result: Employees and em- 
ployers in harmony. 

Ministers, lecturers, and writers have been aided in 
presenting moral questions with force and persuasive- 
ness. Result: Public conscience aroused. 

The attention of societies and clubs has been turned 
to vital civic questions. Result: Energies given practical 

Many private individuals have been encouraged to 
undertake local efforts of great value from which they 
reluctantly shrank for lack of knowledge and experience. 
Result: Individuals and communities have been both 

Theodore Roosevelt said: "This Institute is fitted to 
render a great and peculiar service, not merely to the 


country, but to all countries. The possibilities of use- 
fulness for the Institute are well-nigh boundless. It will 
hasten the progress of civilization and the uplifting of 

The exhibits of the Philadelphia Commercial Mu- 
seum of the world's commerce and American indus- 
tries by means of eighty-eight graphically illustrated 
charts also deserve mention. These charts illustrate 
the progress and present conditions of the commerce 
of the world, of the manufacturing industries of the 
United States, and of the British and American ship- 
ping industries. 

This graphic method shows more clearly than statis- 
tics alone would do what proportion of the world's 
trade belongs to each of the principal nations, and the 
relative importance, from a manufacturing standpoint, 
of the leading cities of the United States. 

The Philadelphia Museum was organized in 1884 by 
ordinance of the City Councils and is governed by a 
board of trustees. The Board maintains the Commer- 
cial Museum and a Commercial Library, and is accu- 
mulating material for a group of city museums devoted 
to public education, ethnology, economics, economic 
botany, and general science. 

The Commercial Museum comprises collections illus- 
trating the production and commerce of all nations. 
A Bureau of Information collates all available data re- 
garding the subject of foreign trade, and distributes, 
upon application, reports tending to the extension of 
American trade abroad. 

The Commercial Library is free to the public and 


contains books bearing particularly on the subjects of 
international trade, productions, transportation, bank- 
ing, economics, and municipal affairs. It also contains 
more important books, pamphlets, periodicals, and for- 
eign reports of recent date relating to foreign trade and 
commerce than any other commercial library in the 

This valuable collection of trade literature includes 
statistical reports of all foreign governments issuing 
such documents, and foreign governments' gazettes, 
reports of board of trade bodies, regulations of customs 
tariffs, year-books descriptive of many foreign countries, 
colonies, and settlements, the consular reports from all 
countries, special work regarding trade, commerce, 
agriculture, mining, and general conditions in foreign 
countries. It also has periodicals, city directories, and 
trade directories from all countries. 

The Museums are maintained by an annual appro- 
priation from the city of Philadelphia, and the Bureau 
of Information by contributions from business firms 
and individuals desiring special service. 

The Commercial Museum has accomplished much 
along the educational lines. The growing feeling that 
an increased export trade is necessary to the prosperity 
of the country is forcing upon schools and colleges the 
necessity of courses in commercial geography and com- 

The Commercial Museum, with its wealth of products 
collected from every part of the world, is in the position 
to supply the necessary demand for the material on 
which such schools must depend. It has distributed 
over 225 collections of such products, with photographs 


(^Appointed NoveTnber 29, 1902) 


arranged for the study of commercial geography, and 
so is intended eventually to include within its scope 
schools, colleges, and universities. 


It is impossible to describe in a few words the great 
work and the good being accomplished by the Salvation 
Army. Many photographs were exhibited illustrating 
the work being done by this noble army. 

On Christmas, 1878, in London, this army of Chris- 
tian workers was christened "The Salvation Army," 
consisting then of about twenty workers and about as 
many posts, with a few hundred members, and some 
3000 souls seeking salvation during the year. To-day, 
there are scattered through forty-seven countries and 
colonies as follows : — 

15,000 separated workers, entirely supported from 
its funds; 40,000 unpaid local oflBcers, who support 
themselves and give their spare time; 16,000 brass 
bandsmen (unpaid); 50,000 other musicians, compos- 
ing thousands of hymns and hundreds of new tunes 
annually; 250,000 penitents profess salvation publicly 
in the course of a single year; 6000 centres have been 
established, where an average of fourteen to twenty 
meetings are held weekly — half in open air, half in 
buildings — 84,000 meetings weekly; 10,000,000 weekly 
Hsteners ; 520,000,000 listeners in a year. (To the poor 
the Gospel is being preached everywhere.) 

In 1880 the first Salvation Army officers landed in 
New York. The Salvation Army struck root in its 
new soil from the outset. The work has gone steadily 


forward, and it is noted throughout the world for the 
wonderful spirit of humility and devotion among its 
workers who came to be increasingly widely recog- 
nized. They made rapid strides in America. They 
founded homes for the homeless; work for the work- 
less; establishments for labor bureaus and social relief 
institutions; establishment of industrial homes; work- 
ingmen's hotels; workingwomen's homes, and hotels; 
the establishment of the beautiful Floral Home, Los An- 
geles, Benedict Hotel for Young Women, Boston ; and a 
number of cheaper class hotels for women in New York, 
Chicago, and Boston ; these all supply a clean, comfort- 
able bed, with good moral surroundings, kindly sym- 
pathy, and religious services. In New York and other 
large cities Day Nurseries have been opened in connec- 
tion with some Slum Posts, — here mothers bring their 
children to be cared for during the day while they are 
out at work earning the wages upon which the family 
depend for existence. There are more than 100 Rescue 
Homes located in leading cities of the world, and more 
than 7000 fallen women were taken care of during the 
last year. 

Farm colonies have also been established, and fresh 
air camps are organized for summer outings. In the 
summer ice is furnished to the needy of the tenements ; 
in winter, coal. 

Who can estimate the good done by this noble army ? 
How their efforts help to cast gleams of sunshine into 
the desolate hearts and homes of the needy ! In civiliza- 
tion, religious, and sociological reforms the Salvation 
Army is doing a magnificent work. 



The Insular Exhibit of the Phihppine Islands at the 
Louisiana Purchase Exposition was one of the great 
features of the Fair, and deserves especial mention, 
although it does not come under Group 129. 

No other one exhibit was so widely commented upon 
in the press and by the public as the Insular Exhibit. 
Everybody who went to the Exposition visited the 
Filipino village and went away full of wonder and 
with new ideas regarding our Island possessions and 
our governmental policy in regard to the Filipinos and 
the Islands. In the Filipino village or grounds there 
were erected a number of typical Filipino buildings. 
The native villages presented the life of the Negritos, 
Igorrotes, and other tribes. A number of buildings dis- 
played the native woods, and some were devoted to 
commerce, agricultural products, and others to educa- 
tional matters. 

The education exhibits attracted unusual attention. 
The main school building was constructed after a 
Manila Cathedral. The main feature of the educational 
exhibit was a model school taught by Mr. Hager and 
Miss Zamora of the Filipino Normal School. The 
Filipino pupils were objects of great interest and curi- 

No doubt many visitors were interested in the Igor- 
rotes or in some other one slight feature which left no 
deep impression of the actual condition of the Islands. 
But every one who went attentively through the Fili- 
pino village knows just what kind of people the Filipinos 
are, and learned much of their customs and their in- 


dustries, and also acquired a fair knowledge of the re- 
sources of the Islands and the many problems confront- 
ing our Government. The Philippine Exhibit was one 
of the greatest features of the Fair. 


The pamphlets issued by the Humane Education 
Society during the progress of the Louisiana Pur- 
chase Exposition are far-reaching as an important fac- 
tor in true education, and cannot but result in good. 
Children through their influence will be trained in habits 
of kindness to the dependent lower creatures, become 
gentler to each other, more amenable to authority, and 
better in their conduct. Through the efforts of this 
Society, Bands of Mercy have been organized in the 
various schools and churches throughout the country, 
and as a result children become more humane. 

Pamphlets of instruction of methods of forming 
Humane Education Societies were given out, with other 
literature on humane treatment of animals which could 
not fail in arousing interest. A grand and noble work 
is being done throughout the world by the Humane 
Societies. Too much cannot be said in praise of the 
work being accomplished by the little children as mem- 
bers of Bands of Mercy. 

This is a report of a few important exhibits. It was 
impossible for me to give an accurate report of all the 
important exhibits viewed by Jury Group 129. There 
were several things I consider of vital importance to 
humanity exhibited under other groups, — you will no 
doubt receive reports concerning them. One was the 


"Model Nursery," which appeals to all womankind. 
Another, the School exhibits in manual training, draw- 
ing, nature study, and kindergarten exhibits. Most of this 
work is developed through the training of the powers of 
the child by our great army of noble women teachers. 

Group 135, Miss Margaret Wade, Washington, D. C, 


Under the Group heading "Provident Institutions," 
the six classes into which it was divided represented: 
Savings banks. Life insurance. Accident insurance. 
Sickness insurance. Old age and invalidity insurance. 
Fire, marine, and other insurance of property. 

Miss Wade expressed a somewhat pessimistic view 
of the work of women in this special department, as 
she said "the part taken by women as shown by their 
exhibits showed no high degree of excellence, the only 
exhibit in Group 135 being not up to the standard, and, 
therefore, in her opinion, it would have been no advantage 
to women to have had their work exhibited separately." 

This would be a somewhat difficult class, no doubt, 
for women to endeavor to make an exhibit, because, 
while thousands of them are employed in the offices of 
insurance companies, and as solicitors, it is probably 
not a field in which they will assume the risks involved, 
for many years to come. 

Group 136, Miss Jane Addams, Hull House, Chicago, 

111., Juror. 

Under the Group heading "Housing of the Working 
Classes," the five classes into which it was divided 


represented: Building and sanitary regulations. Erec- 
tion of improved dwellings by employers. Erection of 
improved dwellings by private efforts. Erection of im* 
proved dwellings by public authorities. General efforts 
for betterment of housing conditions. 

Miss Addams says in her report as Group Juror of 
the above : — 

From the nature of the exhibits in this Department it 
is difficult to divide the work of women from that of 
men, for although the erection of dwellings by public 
authorities as in London was naturally done through 
men who were members of the London County Council, 
and while the model dwellings erected by large employ- 
ers, such as those built by Mr. Cadbury at Port Sunlight, 
England, or by the Krupp Company in Germany, were 
naturally carried through altogether by men, the earli- 
est efforts for amelioration in housing conditions and 
in many cases the initiatory measures for improved 
dwellings, have been undertaken by women. 

The activities of Octavia Hill in London preceded 
by many years the Governmental action, and there is 
no doubt that the creditable showing she was able to 
make on the financial as well as on the social and edu- 
cational side had much to do with making the move- 
ment for better housing popular in London. The ef- 
forts of Fraiilein Krupp in connection with the model 
housing at Eisen are also well known, although, of 
course, this was not indicated in the Krupp exhibit. 

Of the five Grands Prix which were given for general 
achievements disconnected with exhibits, only one was 


awarded to a woman, that to Miss Octavia Hill, al- 
though a silver medal was also awarded to Frau Ross- 
bach of Leipsic, Germany. Two gold medals were 
given to American enterprises in model housing which 
were carried on almost exclusively by women: one to 
the Boston Cooperative Society, which was founded 
and largely directed by Mrs. Alice Lincoln, and one to 
the Octavia Hill Association of Philadelphia. 

On the whole, the special work of women in connec- 
tion with housing showed most satisfactory results in 
"rent collecting," which has become a dignified pro- 
fession for many English ladies who conscientiously 
use it as a means of moral and educational uplift to 
those most in need of sustained and continuous help. 
Improvements in housing conditions are so closely con- 
nected with the rate of mortality among little children, 
with the chances for decency and right living among 
young girls, with the higher standards and opportunities 
for housewives, that it has naturally attracted the help 
of women from the beginning of the crowded tenement 
conditions which unhappily prevail in every modern city. 

Group 139, Miss Mary E. Perry, St. Louis, Mo., 


Under the Group heading "Charities and Correc- 
tion," the seven classes into which it was divided, re- 
presented : Destitute, neglected, and delinquent children. 
Institutional care of destitute adults. Care and relief 
of needy families in their homes. Hospitals, dispensaries, 
and nursing. The insane, feeble-minded, and epileptic. 
Treatment of criminals. Identification of criminals. 
Supervisory and educational movements. 


Miss Perry reports : — 

The nature of the exhibits in Department "O," 
Group 139, was as follows : — 

Class 784,— 
Vacation Play-Ground 
Philadelphia Night College for Girls 
Missouri Industrial School for Girls 
Illinois Industrial School for Girls 
Industrial School for Girls, Washington, D. C. 
Class 785 — 

Door of Hope 
Class 786 — 
Conunittee on Tuberculosis of the Charity 
Organization Society of the City of New 
Class 787 — 
Johns Hopkins School for Nurses 
Anatomical and Pathological Exhibit 
Class 788 — 
Seguin School for Backward Children 
Compton School for Nervous Children 
Chicago Hospital School 
Class 789 — 

Police Supplies and Detective exhibit 
Class 790 — 
Missouri State Board of Charities 
New Hampshire State Board of Charities 
Massachusetts Charity and Correctional 
Exhibit and Jewish Charitable and Educa- 
tional Union 
The Catholic University of America made an 
exhibit of all the Catholic Institutions relat- 
ing to Charities and Correction, which was 
collected and installed by the Union but 
put in charge of the "Queen's Daughters " 

Mrs. E. A. De Wolfe. 
Mrs. Wilson. 
Mrs. De Bolt. 
Mrs. Ameigh. 
Amy J. Rule. 

Mrs. Moise. 

Miss Brandt. 

Miss Ross. 

Mrs. Corrine B. Eckley. 

Mrs. Seguin. 
Fanny A. Compton. 
Mary R. Campbell. 

Mrs. M. E. Holland. 

Miss Mary E. Perry, 
Mrs. Lilian Streator. 

By Committee of Ladies. 

Miss Mary Hoxsey. 


The approximate number of exhibits by women 
was — 

Class 784 35 per cent. 

785 30 

786 20 

787 40 

788 30 

789 15 

790 40 
Total, 30 per cent, (average) 

The most striking exhibits were by the 
Missouri State Board of Charities; 
Massachusetts Exhibit in Charities and Correction j 
Johns Hopkins School for Nurses; 
Committee on Tuberculosis of the Charity Organ- 
ization Society of the City of New York. 

It is a very noticeable fact that women are taking the 
place of men in charitable institutions. This fact, how- 
ever, is more clearly demonstrated in the general Edu- 
cational Exhibit. The exhibits relating to dispensaries 
and nurses were mostly prepared by women — in fact, 
they seem to have a monopoly in this particular line of 

A part of the Anatomical and Pathological Exhibit 
was in charge of Mrs. Eckley, anatomist, from the Col- 
lege of Physicians and Surgeons, Chicago, 111. 

The number of women entering this field was shown 
to be steadily on the increase, and the exhibit relating to 
medical schools also showed a great increase in the 
number of students. 


Nearly all of the reformatory schools for girls and 
prisons and reformatories for women are under the 
charge of women, and a great many of the state boards 
of charities are practically under their control. 

Women are taking the place of men in the distribu- 
tion of charities in the larger cities, and Mrs. M. E. 
Holland, who installed the Exhibit on Police Supplies 
and who is also the editor of the "Detective," was, at 
the same time, in charge of the Chicago Police Exhibit. 
This is one of the cases where a woman has entered the 
profession of detective. 

No foreign exhibits were installed by women, al- 
though about fifteen per cent, of the foreign exhibits 
were prepared by women. 

The most noticeable work given to women at the Fair 
was along the lines demanding executive ability, as is 
required in organizing exhibits where tact and business 
capacity are essential to success. Their work differed 
from the work at other expositions in the fact that scien- 
tific material was presented in an attractive and com- 
prehensive way so as to be easily understood and ap- 
preciated by the general visitor. Their work could 
easily be compared to that of men. It was of the same 
grade, and there seemed to be no question or sugges- 
tion of inferiority. 

The work of women was as well appreciated when 
placed by the side of that of men as when separately 
exhibited, and the results would not have been better 
if separately exhibited. Exhibits must be scientifically 
classified in order to be appreciated by the general 
visitor. If the exhibits prepared by women had been 
separated, it would have left a great gap in the scientific 


arrangement required in a collective exhibit as in Group 
139. The exhibits in this line prepared by women would 
not and could not have covered the subject completely. 

There were no manufacturers in Group 139 except 
manufacturers of prison cells, and no women are em- 
ployed in such factories. 

Thirty per cent, of the work of organizing, collecting 
and installing exhibits in Group 139 was performed by 
women, and about forty per cent, of the actual work 
was prepared under the direction of women, such as 
teachers in reformatory institutions, etc. 

All women preparing and organizing exhibits in this 
group received awards. The exact proportion cannot 
be determined until the jury make their final report. 

Naturally there were no inventions by women in this 
group, but the exhibits made, or nearly all of them, 
were improvements on such work at former exposi- 
tions, and a great deal of originality was displayed, 
presenting scientific material and installment of ex- 

The artistic genius and method of displaying scien- 
tific material made this group very interesting to the 
general public, and the subjects could be comprehended 
with but little effort by the passing visitor. At former 
expositions such subjects received little attention, and 
were of no interest except to scientific investigators. 

This exhibit as a whole showed that women have 
taken possession of several lines of work, such as teach- 
ing and nursing, and that men have been practically 
forced out of these occupations. It also showed that they 
are entering many new fields, such as the medical pro- 
fession, and even becoming detectives, which demon- 


strates the fact that they are not inferior to men, but 
are more specially adapted to certain lines of work. 

Group 141, Mrs. E. P. Turner, Dallas, Texas, Juror. 
Owing to illness Mrs. Turner served but two days on 
this jury, and was succeeded by Mrs. Conde Hamlin, 
who had been named by the Board of Lady Managers 
as Mrs. Turner's alternate. 

Under the Group heading "Municipal Government," 
the five classes into which it was divided represented: 
City organization. Protection of life and property. 
Public service industries. Streets and sewers. Parks, 
baths, recreation, city beautification, etc. 

Mrs. Hamlin became secretary of this jury and reports 
as follows : — 

In the department in which I was a juror, namely. 
Municipal Government, a good deal of the work was in- 
spired by women, and some of it prepared by women. 
Women's work in civic improvement is well to the front. 
The work in the vacation schools which was shown, in 
play-grounds, for clean streets, for smoke abatement, 
for better disposition of garbage, has in many cities 
been largely inspired by women. In fact, I know of no 
department where the women of the leisure class are 
more actively interested and more efficient than in civic 
improvement work, and the results reached through 
the activities of the municipal leagues, through offi- 
cials, have been most marked. The Twin City Munici- 
pal Exhibit I myself designed, and largely prepared 
and administered, and I was the resident member of 
the Municipal Commission. 


The nature of the exhibits in this department were 
charts and photographs, Hterature on civic improve- 
ment work for and by children in play-grounds, school 
gardens, etc. Civic work of women's clubs. The civil 
improvement movement may be said to have had its 
inception and development since the Chicago Fair, 
hence the display at St. Louis showed a decided and 
marked advance over the work of a similar nature 
shown at Chicago, but, naturally, there were no exhibits 
from foreign women, municipal betterment work being 
new for both men and women in the present under- 
standing of the term. The work shown, of course, re- 
lating as it does to the social life of cities, would prove 
helpful to those interested in the advancement and suc- 
cess of women's work. I saw no difference in appre- 
ciation shown in comparing the work of men and 
women; the very nature of the work would not permit 
of its being separately exhibited, and it was not in all 
cases shown which had been performed or accomplished 
by women — which by men. Although much of the 
work had been stimulated by women, just how much 
they actually performed I cannot say, and only two or 
three awards were given to women. 


The Board of Lady Managers was given recognition 
on each of the Department Juries, fifteen in number, 
namely: Education, Art, Liberal Arts, Manufactures, 
Machinery, Electricity, Transportation Exhibits, Agri- 
culture, Horticulture, Forestry, Mines and Metallurgy, 
Fish and Game, Anthropology, Social Economy, Phys- 
ical Culture. 


Department A, Education, Dr. Howard J. Rogers, 
Chief. Mrs. W. E. Fischel, St. Louis, Mo., Depart- 
ment Juror. 

This Department comprised 5 Groups and 26 Classes, 
the Group headings being Elementary Education, Sec- 
ondary Education, Higher Education, Special Education 
in Fine Arts, Special Education in Agriculture, Special 
Education in Commerce and Industry, Education of 
Defectives, and Special forms of Education, — Text- 
books, School Furniture, and School Appliances. 

Mrs. Fischel writes : — 

The queries relative to woman's work at the Exposi- 
tion were duly received. I have given very careful con- 
sideration to the request of the accompanying letter, and 
have deferred my answer so as to deliberate most in- 
telligently. Reading the questions over I found myself 
unable to form any opinion of woman's work as wo- 


man's work; indeed, I have held very strongly to the 
opinion that the one great thing accomplished for 
women in this Louisiana Purchase Exposition was the 
exhibition of work as work without distinction as to sex. 
In the jury room when I served, no consideration of 
award was given to any sex characteristic, and not hav- 
ing viewed the exhibits with any idea of specializing 
this feature, I find myself now at a loss to particularize 
and say there was such a per cent, of woman's work. 

Department B, Art, Prof. Halsey C. Ives, Chief. 

This Department comprised 6 Groups, and 18 Classes, 
the Group headings being: Paintings and Drawings; 
Engravings and Lithographs; Sculpture; Architecture; 
Loan Collection; and Original Objects of Art Work- 

The Board was most unfortunate in not being able to 
obtain the services of the prominent artists named for 
this position, all being abroad at the time notice of their 
appointment was sent, and having engagements upon 
their return that rendered it impossible for them to 
reach St. Louis in time to serve. 

Department C, Liberal Arts, Col. John A. Ocherson,N 


This Department comprised 13 Groups and 116 
Classes, the Group headings being: Typography, Va- 
rious Printing Processes; Photography; Books and 
Publications, Book-Binding; Maps and Apparatus for 
Geography, Cosmography, Topography; Instruments 
of precision; Philosophical Apparatus, etc.; Coins and 


Medals; Medicine and Surgery; Musical Instruments; 
Theatrical appliances and equipment; Chemical and 
Pharmaceutical arts; Manufacture of paper; Civil and 
military engineering; Models, plans, and designs for 
public works; Architectural engineering. 

Mrs. H. A. Langford, of Chicago, 111., was appointed 
as Juror in this Department, but did not receive notice 
in time. 

Department D, Manufactures, Milan H. Hulbert, 
Chief. Miss Thekla M. Bernays, of St. Louis, Mo., 
Department Juror. 

This Department comprised 24 Groups and 231 
Classes, the Group headings being: Stationery; Cutlery; 
Silversmiths' and Goldsmiths' ware; Jewelry; Clock 
and Watch-making; Productions in marble, bronze, 
cast-iron, and wrought-iron ; Brushes, fine leather ar- 
ticles, fancy articles and basket-work; Articles for travel- 
ing and for camping; India-rubber and gutta-percha 
industries; Toys; Decoration and fixed furniture of 
buildings and dwellings; Office and household furni- 
ture; Stained glass; Mortuary monuments and under- 
takers' furnishings ; Hardware; Paper-hanging; Carpets, 
tapestries, and fabrics for upholstery; Upholsterers' 
decorations; Ceramics; Plumbing and sanitary ma- 
terials ; Glass and crystal ; Apparatus and processes for 
heating and ventilation; Apparatus and methods, not 
electrical, for lighting; Textiles; Equipment and pro- 
cesses used in the manufacture of textile fabrics ; Equip- 
ment and processes used in bleaching, dyeing, printing, 
and finishing textiles in their various stages; Equip- 


ment and processes used in sewing and making wearing 
apparel; Threads and fabrics of cotton; Threads and 
fabrics of flax, hemp, etc. ; Cordage ; Yarns and fabrics 
of wool; Silk and fabrics of silk; Laces, embroidery, 
and trimmings; Industries producing wearing apparel 
for men, women, and children ; Leather, boots and shoes, 
furs and skins, fur clothing; Various industries con- 
nected with clothing. 

Miss Bernays reports as follows : — 

In order to arrive at an accurate idea of the value of 
women's work as compared with men's, it would have 
been necessary to study the St. Louis Exposition from 
the time of its opening to the close, with a view to col- 
lecting data and statistics on this question. Further- 
more, to get definite results regarding the progress of 
women since the Columbian Exposition one would have 
had to have access to the researches and statistics of 
former expositions on this subject, if such there exist. 
I visited both the Columbian Exposition of 1893 and 
the Paris Exposition of 1900, but I have only inpres- 
sions of the work by women as exhibited there. Nor can 
I furnish figures, percentages, or even accurate esti- 
mates of women's work at the Louisiana Purchase Ex- 
position. The observations subjoined have value only 
in so far as the interest in women's work lies always in 
the undercurrent of my thought. Even under the ter- 
rific stress of the enormous amount of work pressed 
into the few short days of jury-duty, I was vividly im- 
pressed with the dignity of the work accomplished in 
arts and crafts by the women of Germany, where it was 


exhibited together with that of men. In the one instance 
where women secluded themselves, it was shown with 
appalling force that the result was tawdry and inhar- 

I was appointed by the Board of Lady Managers to 
serve upon the Department Jury in the same classi- 
fication of which I had served as Group Juror, for 
"Kunstgewerbe" (Arts and Crafts). Finding my 
group divided into four classes, — Fixed inner decora- 
tion. Furniture, Stained glass, and Mortuary monu- 
ments, with numberless exhibits in various buildings, 
all over the grounds, — I elected to serve in the class for 
"Fixed Inner Decoration." I was aware that I had 
been appointed for Germany because of the great in- 
terest I had taken in the movement for harmony in 
household art inaugurated in Germany about ten years 
ago. This movement admits of no division into "fixed 
inner decoration" and "furniture," etc., but regards 
the arrangement and decoration of spaces with a view 
to the effect of the "ensemble." Following the lead of 
our distinguished Chairman, Dr. Wuthesius, we ad- 
hered to this idea in spite of the barbarous separation 
ordered by the ofllcial instructions. Thus I was enabled 
to gain an insight into what women were accomplishing 
in industrial art, which would have been impossible had 
I permitted myself to look only upon "fixed inner deco- 

The exhibits made by our own country in household 
art were meagre compared to those of several foreign 
countries, notably Germany and Austria. Nor was it 
possible to gain information from our exhibitors as 
full and as accurate as from some of the foreigners. 



Here again the Germans were to the front with a com- 
plete, reliable, and artistically finished catalogue, which 
they freely distributed amongst the jurors. Only the 
Japanese were as perfectly equipped in the matter of 
literature on their exhibits and as lavish of information 
to the jurors as the Germans. 

I have no doubt that American women are as ex- 
tensively employed in industrial art as the women of 
Europe, but excepting in pottery their forward stride 
was not made to appear pronounced at the Louisiana 
Purchase Exposition. Women's work, as a maker of 
laces, was not so exhibited as to make it readily dis- 
tinguishable from men's, although it must have entered 
largely into the exhibits made, which, however, as I 
have just said, did not adequately represent the United 
States, many of the best and most renowned Eastern 
firms having chosen to absent themselves. 

Nor were foreign women, always the Germans and 
Austrians excepted, frequent or prominent in the show- 
ing made. In the two countries mentioned women have 
been undoubtedly taken up as factors which hereafter 
are to count in the arts and crafts. We found German 
women in a perceptible number exhibiting side by side 
with men, holding their own fairly well in decorative 
painting, as designers of rooms, — of carpets, and wall- 
coverings, — workers in iron and other metals, while in 
tapestry, weaving, embroidery, and lace-work their ad- 
vance is nothing short of astonishing. 

Wherever in the Varied Industries Building, in the 
German House, in the Austrian Pavilion, and elsewhere, 
the work of German women was incorporated into the 
general scheme of the decorations and furnishings, 



wherever women together with men designed and 
planned, or wherever they carried out the designs of 
men, harmony was the result. Women's work was 
found to blend perfectly with men's when both worked 
on a common plan to a common end. Of course, wo- 
men in German art, as elsewhere, are numerically 
immensely in the minority, nor do they as yet often 
attempt the grand, the monumental, the complex. But 
many of them are honest and efficient helpers, whose 
eyes and hands show excellent training. They are, 
besides, enthusiastic supporters and intelligent abettors 
of the new movement which aims to achieve homo- 
geneousness in the arts of living. 

Again and again in the German exhibits one was 
constrained to note that the female members of an 
artist's family were frequently represented by work of 
their own. One encountered Bruno and Frau Wille, 
joint designers of rooms, carpets, wall-coverings ; Prof. 
Behrens' wife plans a variety of things from costumes to 
book-covering. There are feminine Hubers, Spindlers, 
Laengers in the catalogue, showing that the Germans, 
who have been so long reckoned as addicted to the cult 
of the "Hausfrau" only, are beginning to accord the 
woman-artist due recognition. 

It was all the more amazing to find that Germany, the 
very Germany who, by general verdict, had given the 
most complete exhibit of household art ever shown at 
any exposition, who, as I have just pointed out, had 
brought forward its crafts-women in no contemptible 
role, should all unconsciously furnish the striking, the 
classical example, of the folly of separating the sexes 
at an exposition. The " Verein Berliner Kunstlevinnen " 
made an exhibit of exclusively feminine work which 


was as pointedly painful, as conspicuously lacking in 
force and originality, as confused as to arrangement, as 
have been all the previous displays, where the accen- 
tuated feminine was relegated to separate little build- 
ings or separate little corners in buildings. I saw more 
than one German artist hustle his American friends 
past that part of the Varied Industries Building where 
abominations of his misguided country-women were 
on view. And more than one told me that it was a 
slander on what German women could do. This only 
goes to prove what the action of the authorities in charge 
of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition believed to be 
the fact: That the exhibition of women's work apart 
from men's runs to the tawdry, the insignificant, and 
the unnecessary. Therefore, separation of the sexes 
in the display at expositions should not be tolerated. 

Department E, Machinery, Mr. Thomas M. Moore, 
Chief. Miss Edith J. Griswold, New York City, 
Department Juror. 

This Department comprised 5 Groups and 35 
Classes, the Group headings being: Steam engines. 
Various motors. General Machinery. Machine tools. 
Arsenal tools. 

Miss Griswold says: 

After considerable consideration I almost feel that 
the least said about women exhibitors in the Machinery 
Department at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, the 
better. The fact is, there were no women exhibitors. 
However, in this Department the exhibitors were mostly 
old firms or very large manufacturers, and while women 


are undoubtedly making their way into mechanics, they 
have not been in the field long enough to have reached 
a point where their work, of a nature to form exposition 
exhibits, can compete with man's work. The Chief of 
the Machinery Department, and one other member of 
the Jury, mentioned a Miss Gleason, who is connected 
with one of the firms that exhibited, and spoke of her 
ability in the mechanical line and her knowledge of me- 
chanics in the highest of terms. Women are employed 
in various capacities in nearly every line of work that 
was exhibited in this Department, and Miss Gleason's 
probably stands as an example of the real but unosten- 
tatious work of many women who understand the in- 
tricacies of machinery fully as well as men with the same 
degree of training. 

That women are making a place for themselves in this 
department of industry is shown by the Patent Office 
statistics. The first patents for inventions were granted 
to men in 1790, but no patent was issued to a woman 
until May 5, 1809, and the number of inventions granted 
to them in any one year did not exceed six until the year 
1862, when 14 were issued. This number was lowered 
but once, and that was in 1865, when naturally women 
had responsibilities of a nature that precluded outside 
interests, but the direction of which is shown in the fact 
that two of the 13 applications in that year were, one 
for "Improved table for hospitals," the other for "Im- 
provement in drinking-cups for the sick." In 1863 an 
application was made for " Improvement in ambulances." 

It is a significant fact that from the time General 
Spinner appointed the first woman to be employed 
ijnder the Government in 1864, her advancement was 


shown in invention, as well as in all other phases of her 
existence. At the beginning of the year 1864, 55 years 
after the first patent had been granted to her, she had 
received but 103 patents. During the next fifteen years, 
1046 patents were granted; during the next ten, 1428, 
and during the next five years (from 1889 to 1894), 
1309 patents were issued to women, the number in 
five years exceeding that granted during the first 70 
years. It is to be regretted that the Patent Office re- 
cords do not show a classification of her work during the 
• past ten years, their list practically ceasing March 1, 1895. 
The inventions cover a wide and ambitious range, and 
include, even among their earliest attempts, " Improved 
war-vessel, the parts applying to other structures for 
defenses," "Improvement in locomotive wheels," in 
"Engraving copper," "Steam whistles," "Mechanism 
for driving sewing machines," "Improved material 
for packing journals and bearings," "Improvement in 
the mode of preventing the heating of axles and jour- 
nals," in "Pyrotechnic night signals," in "Paper bag 
machines," in "Railway car safety apparatus," "Con- 
veyors of smoke and cinders for locomotives," " Sewing 
machines," in "Alloys for hardening iron," in "Alloys 
to resemble silver," in "Devices for removing snow from 
railways," "Car coupling," "Attachment for unloading 
box-cars," "Railroad car," etc., etc. 

Department F, Electricity, Prof. W. E. Goldsborough, 
Chief. Miss Hope Fairfax Loughborough, Depart- 
ment Juror. 

This Department comprised 5 Groups and 24 Classes, 
the Group headings being: Machines for generating 


and using electricity. Electro-chemistry. Electric light- 
ing. Telegraphy and telephony. Various applications 
of electricity. 

Miss Loughborough's report is as follows : — 

The field of electricity has been so long and so pe- 
culiarly a man's field that it is not surprising to find 
that in the 5 Groups and 24 Classes which the Depart- 
ment of Electricity at the Louisiana Purchase Exposi- 
tion comprised, only two exhibits were made by women, 
both of whom were Americans. 

One of these exhibits was made by Mrs. Alexander 
Baumgard, of New York City, and showed an auto- 
matic advertising figure actuated by an electric motor. 
The figure was that of a woman standing before a rack 
on which were a number of signs. The figure stooped, 
picked up one of the signs, raised it, turned a quarter 
way around, in order to display it to the best advantage, 
and replaced the sign. The next movement took up the 
next sign, and so on. The mechanism was actuated by 
an electric motor, which, by means of a series of cams 
and gears, caused it to go through the various move- 
ments. The value of the device was considered very 
small, as there are other more effective means of ad- 
vertising of this kind, and no award was given Mrs. 

The other exhibit by a woman was made by Mrs. 
Blodgett, and consisted of ornamental shades for elec- 
tric lights, painted by hand. These shades were quite 
artistic in themselves and were well installed, so the 
exhibit was awarded a bronze medal. 


In neither of these exhibits was there any invention 
or process which was original. 

In the electrical industry there is practically no ma- 
chine or apparatus made without the assistance of wo- 
men or girls, as they are employed in every electrical 
factory for insulating and winding coils, etc. In the 
manufacture of these, the percentage of women's work 
is from three to ten per cent. But aside from this purely 
mechanical work, women have contributed little or 
nothing to the advancement of the application of elec- 
tricity, either before the Chicago Exposition, or during 
the past eleven years. 

Department G, Transportation Exhibits, Mr. W. A. 
Smith, Chief. Miss Rose Weld, Newport News, Va., 
Department Juror. 

This Department comprised 6 Groups and 33 
Classes, the Group headings being: Carriages and 
Wheelwrights' Work — Automobiles and Cycles. Sad- 
dlery and Harness. Railways : Yards, stations, freight 
houses, terminal facilities of all kinds. Material and 
equipment used in the mercantile marine. Material 
and equipment of naval services, naval warfare. Aerial 

Miss Weld briefly reports : — 

As a Department Juror I saw the papers of every 
exhibitor, and there were no exhibits by women in this 
Department in any of the 33 classes, but not coming in 
contact with any of the exhibitors I can give no exact 
information about the work done by women in the man- 
ufacture or construction of the exhibits. 


Department H, Agriculture, Mr. Frederic W. Taylor, 
Chief. Mrs. Richard P. Bland, Lebanon, Mo., 
Department Juror. 

This Department comprised 27 Groups and 137 
Classes, the Group headings being: Farm equipment 

— methods of improving lands. Agricultural imple- 
ments and farm machinery. Fertilizers. Tobacco. 
Appliances and methods used in agricultural in.dus- 
tries. Theory of agriculture — agricultural statistics. 
Vegetable food products — agricultural seeds. Ani- 
mal food products. Equipment and methods employed 
in the preparation of foods. Farinaceous products and 
their derivatives. Bread and Pastry. Preserved Meat, 
fish, vegetables and fruit. Sugar and confectionery 

— condiments and relishes. Waters. Wines and brand- 
ies. Syrups and liquors — distilled spirits — commer- 
cial alcohol. Fermented beverages. Inedible agricul- 
tural products. Insects and their products — plant 
diseases. Livestock: Horses and mules; cattle, sheep, 
goats, etc., swine, dogs, cats, ferrets, etc., poultry 
and birds. 

Mrs. Bland says: — 

Our Jury passed upon machinery for making drinks, 
refrigerators, refrigerating, Sunny Brook Distillery, 
ice-making plant, beer-packers, and packages, etc., 
bottle-washing and cleaning. Bake-ovens, candy and 
chocolate machines also came within our jurisdiction. 
One special machine of French make was for making 
ice for families and on the farm; these were small 
machines and would make from 10 to 300 pounds. 


and were comparatively cheap and within the reach of 

There was an interesting and unique exhibit from 
Germany showing canned stews and other edibles to be 
used in camp, and on hunting and fishing trips. The 
can had an interlining of tin, and between the two walls 
of the can was unslacked lime; by making a hole in 
each end of the can, and placing first one end and then 
the other in cold water for five minutes, the stew was 
warmed and cooked. 

Mrs. Bland conducts a large farm, and in a letter 
states that she was awarded a bronze medal at this 
Exposition for her exhibit of timothy hay and Grimes 
Golden apples. 

Mrs. Bland also served on the Jury of Awards in the 
Woman's Department at the Charleston Exposition, 
and it was her opinion that there is a great opening for 
women in house furnishings, designing wall-paper, and 

Department J, Horticulture, Mr. Frederic W. Taylor, 
Chief. Mrs. Ida L. Turner, Fort Worth, Texas, 
Department Juror. 

This Department comprised 7 Groups and 31 
Classes, the Group headings being: Appliances and 
methods of pomology, viticulture, floriculture, and 
arboriculture. Appliances and methods of viticulture. 
Pomology. Trees, shrubs, ornamental plants, and 
flowers. Plants of the conservatory. Seeds and plants 
for gardens and nurseries. Arboriculture and fruit cul- 


Mrs. Turner says : — 

In reply to your questions in regard to the work of 
the Woman Jurors at the St. Louis Exposition, will 
say that I arrived very late at the Exposition, after the 
Jury had about finished their duties in the Department 
of Horticulture, in which I was to serve. For this rea- 
son my duties were limited, and I had little opportunity 
to examine and give an intelligent estimate of the part 
taken by women in this Department. 

Department K, Forestry, Mr. Tarleton H. Bean, Chief. 
Mrs. J. M. Glenn, Baltimore, Md., Department Juror. 

This Department comprised 3 Groups and 14 Classes, 
under the Group headings: Appliances and processes 
used in forestry. Products of the cultivation of forests 
and of forest industries. Appliances for gathering wild 
crops and products obtained. 

No report. 

Department L, Mines and Metallurgy, Mr. J. A. 
Holmes, Chief. Mrs. M. G. Scrutchin, Atlanta, Ga., 
Department Juror. 

This Department comprised 5 Groups and 43 Classes, 
under the Group headings: Working of mines, ore 
beds and stone quarries. Minerals and stones, and their 
utilization. Mine models, maps, photographs. Metal- 
lurgy. Literature of mining, metallurgy, etc. 

Mrs. Scrutchin reports as follows : — 

In all our fairy-stories, dwarfs and elves live below 
the earth and deal with mines and their dark belong- 


ings ; the fairies live above. So none of us are surprised 
to find few women in this line of exhibitors. My work 
as a member of the Department Jury confined me to 
one room and to an inspection of lists submitted by the 
Group Jurors. So I really had no opportunity for 
specific examination of the various groups and classes, 
except where some doubt was expressed as to the val- 
idity of an award, when I made it a point to examine 
that subject with more or less care. Many women 
placed specimens of clay and ore in their state collec- 
tions. Several Georgia women, I know, did this, — 
some, though owning and operating mines, and active in 
submitting specimens, took shelter under the husband's 
name. This fact also came under my own observation. 

Nearly all these exhibits were in Group 116, Class 
682. One collection of clays and pottery produced in the 
interest of artistic handicraft came from the Sophie 
Newcomb Memorial College for the higher education 
of girls, at New Orleans, Louisiana, and was in the 
same group, but Class 690. Many like collections were 
seen in the Educational Building, but this is the only 
one given space in the Palace of Mines and Metallurgy. 

The Woman's Club of Pipestone, Minn., showed 
specimens of pipestone and jasper belonging to Group 
116, Class 682. In the whole list I find only two for- 
eigners, one from Toronto, Canada, and the other from 
Taxco, Guerrero, Mexico, both such near neighbors 
to our own country as hardly to seem foreign. The one 
making exhibition from Mexico, Esther Lopez, is as- 
sociated with a man, Hernano, brother, or husband, I 
presume. Group 118, devoted to metallurgy, had only 
one woman exhibitor, Mrs. Abbie Krebs, San Fran- 


cisco, Cal., who submitted Redwood Tanks for an 

I do not recall any award made to a woman in the 
Department of Mines and Metallurgy. Many mer- 
cantile houses and large corporations were competitors, 
and, as I have said before, many women sent their 
specimens to their respective State Exhibits, and so 
increased the chances of the State to an award. 

The fine Alaskan exhibition in the Alaska Building 
was collated, I understand, by a woman. I did not 
see it, and did not learn the woman's name, though 
I made an effort to do so. 

From my observation, I think the work of the women 
would have been better appreciated, and the effect 
more pronounced, had they been placed in a separate 
building. In this Department of Mines, for instance, 
every woman would have sent to the Woman's Building 
instead of to the State Exhibit, and a greater number 
would have been on record as exhibitors. 

The only two exhibitions, or expositions rather, at all 
approaching the one in St. Louis that I have attended, 
were the Centennial at Philadelphia in 1876, and the 
International Cotton Exposition at Atlanta, in 1895. 
At the first, I do not recall any emphasis on what 
woman had done except in the lines in which she had 
always worked, — art, needlework, and dairy products. 
In Atlanta, as at Chicago, there was a Woman's Build- 
ing, and here were found her work in all lines, and 
many visitors enjoyed the exhibition. 

The recognition of woman as evidenced by her ap- 
pointment on the juries of the different departments, 
both Group and Department, was the most striking 
development of the recent great expositions. 


The list submitted below contains the names of all 
women whose names appear in the OflBcial Catalogue of 
Exhibits in the Department of Mines and Metallurgy: 

Sophie Newcombe Memorial College for the Higher 
Education of Girls, of New Orleans, Louisiana. Clays 
and pottery produced in the interest of artistic handi- 
craft. Group 116, Class 690. 

Mrs. Abbie Krebs, San Francisco, Cal. Redwood 
Tanks. Group 118, Class 702. 

Mrs. George Rupp, Bessemer, Mich. Collection of 
iron ores, needle, grape, kidney, and blackberry ore. 
Group 116, Class 682. 

Woman's Club, Pipestone, Minn. Pipestone and 
Jasper. Group 116, Class 682. 

Mrs. Helen M. Schneider, Eureka, Nev. Collection 
of minerals. Group 116, Class 682. 

Mrs. George W. Pritchard, White Oaks, New Mexico. 
Lincoln Co. Ores. Group 116, Class 682. 

Mrs. D. D. Menges, Allentown, Penn. Iron ores. 
Group 116, Class 682. 

Mrs. C. Robinson, Spokane, Washington. Arsenopy- 
rite ore. Group 116, Class 682. 

Mrs, Haliburton, Bridgewood, Bridgewood Co., On- 
tario, Can. Minerals. Group 116, Class 682. 

Esther y Hernano Lopez, Taxco, Province of Guer- 
rero, Mexico. Silver ores. Group 116, Class 682. 

Department M, Fish and Game, Mr. Tarleton H. 
Bean, Chief. Mrs. Mary Stuart Armstrong, Chi- 
cago, 111., Department Juror. 

This Department comprised 5 Groups and 19 
Classes, the Group headings being: Hunting equip- 


ment. Products of hunting. Fishing equipment and 
products. Products of Fisheries. Fish culture. 

No report. 

Department N, Anthropology, Dr. W. J. McGee, 
Chief. Mrs. Zelia Nuttall, Cambridge, Mass., De- 
partment Juror. 

This Department comprised 4 Groups and 5 Classes, 
under the Group headings: Literature, Somatology, 
Ethnology, Ethnography. 

Mrs. Nuttall reports : — 

Exhibits of original work by women in these four 
sections were conspicuous by their absence. At the same 
time the names of several women figure in the catalogue 
as collaborators in the installment of archaeological col- 
lections. Mrs. Quibbell and Miss Cox gave valuable 
assistance in arranging the Egyptian exhibit from the 
Museum at Cairo. 

Miss Mary Louise Dalton not only helped to install 
the archaeological and historical specimens belonging 
to the Missouri Historical Society, but was also insti- 
tuted as the Custodian of these exhibits. 

It is impossible to overrate the value of the services 
rendered to the Exposition by the Special Commis- 
sioner for History, Miss Florence Hayward, who not 
only secured the special exhibit of the Queen's Jubilee 
Presents, but also the exhibits of the Louisiana State 
Historical Society, the historical exhibit of the City of 
New Orleans, and several interesting private collections. 


The highest award was given to Miss Hayward, and 
bronze medals were assigned to Miss Dalton and to 
Miss Valentine Smith, the Secretary of the Chicago 
Historical Society, who installed its loan exhibition, and 
likewise lent some documents belonging to her private 

Two women only figured as exhibitors of single eth- 
nological and archaeological objects, but merely as their 

The foregoing facts establish that of the sections 
under consideration (Ethnology, Archaeology, and His- 
tory), it was in the section of history that women dis- 
tinguished themselves most at the St. Louis Exposition. 
It may perhaps be said that the activity of women in 
bringing together and classifying historical material 
was a feature of the Exposition and marks an encour- 
aging stage in the history of women's work in the United 

Department O, Social Economy, Dr. Howard J. Rogers, 
Chief. Miss Jane Addams, Chicago, 111., Department 

This Department comprised 13 Groups and 58 
Classes, the Group headings being: Study and investi- 
gation of social and economic conditions. Economic 
resources and organization. State regulation of in- 
dustry and labor. Organization of industrial workers. 
Methods of industrial remuneration. Cooperative 
institutions. Provident institutions. Housing of the 
working classes. The liquor question. General bet- 
terment movements. Charities and correction. Public 
health. Municipal improvement. 


Miss Addams says in her report as Department 
Juror of the above : — 

The general advance in social betterment has been 
very marked in the eleven years intervening since the 
Columbian Exposition at Chicago, and women have 
not only shared that advance, but have undoubtedly 
contributed more than their proportionate share if 
tested by the proportionate value of their exhibits at 
Chicago and at St. Louis. This is also true if tested by 
the Social Economy Exhibits made in Paris in 1900, 
where I was a juror in the Department of Social Econ- 
omy. No separate exhibit was there made of the work 
of women, save that implied in the exhibition of wo- 
men's philanthropic societies. At the Louisiana Pur- 
chase Exposition their separate exhibits were not only 
larger, but more definite and coherent. The work of 
women was as much appreciated when placed by the 
side of men as if it had been installed by itself, and the 
results would have been no better if separately exhib- 
ited. Certainly nothing in the entire Department at 
St. Louis was more successfully installed and attracted 
more favorable attention than the Twin City Museum 
which occupied an entire building upon the Model 
Street, and was under the direction of Mrs. Conde 
Hamlin of St. Paul, who had also planned it from the^ 
beginning and was made Commissioner. It was cer- 
tainly a notable achievement to have one such exhibit 
as that standing absolutely upon its merits and dealing 
with the civic and general social conditions as they are 
constantly developing in our large and growing cities. 
It had suggestions of activities along a dozen lines 


which make for ameHoration of urban conditions, as 
they bear hardest upon the people of the most crowded 

To quote from the report of another on this subject : 
"It is now a well-estabHshed fact that women most 
efiFectively supplement the best interests and the fur- 
thering of the highest aims of all government by their 
numberless charitable, reformatory, educational, and 
other beneficent institutions which they have had the 
courage and the ideality to establish for the allevia- 
tion of sufiFering, for the correction of many forms of 
social injustice and neglect, and these institutions ex- 
ert a strong and steady influence for good, an influence 
which tends to decrease vice, to make useful citizens 
of the helpless or depraved, to elevate the standard 
of morality, and to increase the sum of human hap- 

Department P, Physical Culture, J. E. Sullivan 
Chief. Miss Clara Hellwig, Plainfield, N. J., Depart- 
ment Juror. 

This Department comprised 3 Groups and 6 Classes, 
the Group headings being: Training of the child and 
adult — theory and practice. Games and sports for 
children and adults. Equipment for games and 

Unfortunately Miss Hellwig was abroad, and did not 
receive notification in time to reach St. Louis for the 
jury work. 



Mrs. Philip N. Moore, of St. Louis, Mo,, was ap- 
pointed to represent the Board of Lady Managers on 
the Superior Jury, and in a general resume of the 
Louisiana Purchase Exposition, Mrs. Moore says : — 

If the organization of a World Exposition begins 
years before its doors open, if public opinion changes 
in a decade, it may be well, before summing up the 
work of women at St. Louis, to look first at the record 
of achievement, from Chicago in 1893 through At- 
lanta, Nashville, Omaha, Paris, and Buffalo, all of 
which led gradually to the high plane upon which we 
now stand. 

Segregation of the sexes was the limited understand- 
ing of most of those in charge of former expositions. 
Not for a moment would I imply by this statement that 
there was a desire to give the work of women a lower 
grade than that of men; rather was it the mistaken 
idea of drawing attention to it, as something better and 
apart. By this very means there was often a serious 
and hurtful comparison, since many women with un- 
doubted ability would not thus place their exhibits. It 
implied that in the special group, where exhibit was 
made, woman's mind differed from that of man's to 
the extent that there was also a difference in the result. 

We owe sincere thanks to the progressive men in 
charge of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, that they 
listened with intelligent appreciation to the plea from 
women for equal representation, wherever their work 
was found worthy. 



There is no mistaking the dignified effect of this 
edict, and only the best in various Hnes gained ad- 
mission to the exhibit palaces. 

In most exhibits the larger proportion was presented 
by men; and in similar proportion the awards were 
assigned. There was, however, no distinction made 
as to sex; and the members of the various juries, in- 
cluding women, paid as careful attention to the one 
exhibit as to the other, without reference to name^ 
— often the only indication of sex. 

There were some Art, Educational, and Economic 
exhibits, placed entirely by women, showing marvelous 
adaptability to the limitations of environment, and also 
skill in artistic and practical setting. Looking closely 
at the work in the several departments, my opinion is 
that, while woman has not gained greatly in inventive 
or constructive arts, she has gained breadth in the ap- 
plied arts and has grown immeasurably in freedom of 
execution. This has been obtained partly by the con- 
tact with man's work, extending through many cen- 
turies in advance, and partly by the very fact that she 
must now stand only on her own merits. 

Women from foreign lands entered into competition 
in the Departments of Art, Education, and Liberal Arts 
to a very slight extent, with some investigation in 
Science, but in all a very small proportion. This was 
natural, on account of the great distance, and may be 
applied equally to the number of exhibitors from across 
the water, whether men or women. 

American women were found in nearly every field 
open to competition, though it was the apparently 
proud statement of the Director of Mines and Metal- 


lurgy that there were no women on his juries, which 
meant, of course, no exhibit.^ 

The Congresses were open to women, who appeared 
on the same programmes with men, were paid the 
comphment of as large audiences, were listened to with 
interest, and their opinions in discussion answered 
with freedom. This occurred also in the various As- 
sociations, where men and women work side by side. 

In the work of the Superior Jury, where for the first 
time the right of membership was given to a representa- 
tive of women, the application of deliberation and 
judgment was made to the work of men and women 
alike. Courtesy and the hand of fellowship were ex- 
tended to all. Exhibits were not specially investigated, 
unless appeals from former jury awards were sent in. 
In such cases most careful and detailed investigation 
was made by the special boards, to which were as- 
signed certain departments. There was no distinction 
of sex mentioned in the jury room; and the time has 
evidently arrived when no less will be expected from 
women — no more from men — than the quality of 
work merits. 

* Mrs. M. G. Scrutchin was evidently appointed Department Juror 
after this statement of the Director of Mines and Metallm-gy. 



Madam President, and Members of the Board of Lady 
Managers of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition. 

Ladies, — The Chairman of the Committee of 
Awards, of the Board of Lady Managers, begs leave to 
present the story and the report of that Committee to 
your honorable Board. 

We will not begin by saying "once upon a time," for 
this is no fairy-story, but we will hark back to that time 
when we, as a Board, were not, that we may refer to the 
vital words of the Act of Congress of March 3, 1901, 
which Act provided for the creation of a Board of Lady 
Managers, gave the excuse for its existence, and named 
specifically one duty it would be called upon to per- 
form, to wit, " To appoint one member of all Commit- 
tees authorized to award prizes for such exhibits as 
shall have been produced in whole or in part by female 

This phase of woman's work at the World's Fair 
formed the principal topic of talk at the informal con- 
ference held in New York, December 5, 1901, between 
the National Commission and the members of the Board 
of Lady Managers who had been appointed up to that 

The Committee of Awards was one of the last of the 
Standing Committees to be appointed, but was the first 
Committee appointed by Mrs. Daniel Manning, after 
her election to the Presidency of the Board of Lady 
Managers in December, 1903, and was as follows : — 


Mrs. Frederick Hanger, Ghairman, Little Rock, Ark. 

Mrs. Richard W. Knott, Louisville, Ky. 

Miss Lavinia H. Egan, Shreveport, La. 

Mrs. Fannie Lowry Porter, Atlanta, Ga. 

Mrs. Helen Boice-Hunsicker, Hoboken, N. J. 

From the organization of the Board its influence had 
been sought and besought by women wishing positions 
connected with the Exposition work. The appointing 
of the Committee of Awards acted like a wireless tele- 
graphy message throughout the country, and brought 
applications from "would-be" jurors, or recommenda- 
tions from friends of "would-be" jurors, until the files 
of the Board room were filled to the limit, and the col- 
ored postman, of the free delivery postal service, in the 
Southern home of the Chairman, thought he had relapsed 
into a "previous condition of servitude." 

The rules regulating the system of awards, enacted 
by the Exposition Company, stated that the nomination 
for jurors must be in the hands of the Director of Ex- 
hibits thirty days before the opening of the Exposition, 
for the approval of the Exposition Company and the 
National Commission. 

The Division of Exhibits had issued a list of all ex- 
hibits that could be entered at the Exposition, dividing 
them into 144 groups. 

As woman's work is never done, and as she has worked 
her way into almost every industrial avenue, to find out 
the "woman" in the work of exhibits required more 
light than the Act of Congress or the rules of the Expo- 
sition Company gave on the subject. 

The Chairman of the Committee of Awards made a 
special journey to St. Louis, a month after the Com- 


mittee was appointed, and in company with Miss Egan, 
a member of the Committee, waited upon the Director 
of Exhibits, and asked that the World's Fair Hght, for 
femininity, might be thrown on the 144 groups of Ex- 
hibits, that woman's work, "in whole or in part," might 
have a juror appointed by the Board of Lady Mana- 
gers to judge of its merits. 

The Director of Exhibits, with much genial gracious- 
ness, threw up his oflBcial hands and said he was helpless, 
that not until the exhibits were placed could the groups 
that would admit of women jurors be determined ; and 
that there would be women jurors appointed by the 
Exposition Company as well as by the Board of Lady 
Managers. He suggested that we look carefully through 
the 144 groups and use our "judgment" as to which 
groups would call for women jurors. 

We asked the advisability of conferring with the heads 
of the different Departments, and were told that the in- 
formation must come through the Director of Exhibits. 
We were told to remember that the list of women jurors 
must be limited to keep down the expense of the jury 

From this time until the 25th of July, the Board waited 
for the classified list. 

By correspondence among the members of the Com- 
mittee of Awards, by meeting of the same, and by sug- 
gestions from the entire Board, a long list of names of 
women eminent for intellectual, artistic, material, and 
practical achievements was obtained from which to 
choose women jurors. It seemed impossible for the 
Committee to make a report to present to the Board for 
acceptance until information in regard to the classified 
list had been obtained. 


Partial tentative reports were read at the March meet- 
ing, to report progress and secure suggestions. 

At a meeting of the Board held April 29, a list of 83 
names for women jurors and their alternates was sub- 
mitted by the Committee, and accepted by the Board. 
A motion carried to the effect that power to act was left 
with the Committee, as the classified list had not been 
received from the Exposition Company, and the Com- 
mittee's use of "judgment" might be tempered with the 
blue pencil of the Exposition Company. 

The confirmation of names for jurors was made very 
comprehensive, as the Board at that time did not expect 
to meet until after the jurors had served. 

The President of the Board was untiring in her efforts 
in behalf of the jury work of the Board. The Chairman 
of the Committee was called to St. Louis twice on the 
special work of the jury list, and the members of the 
Board and Committee, by consultation with members 
of the National Commission, officials of the Exposition 
Company, and heads of Departments, held out for what 
they considered the full rights of the nominating power 
of the Board, with the hope of bringing American 
womanhood in touch, as near as possible, with the work 
of the Exposition. 

The following communications indicate the progress 
made : — 

St. Louis, July 22, 1904. 
Hon. David R. Francis, 

President Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 
Exposition Grounds, St. Louis, Mo. 
Dear Sir, — In regard to the appointment of wo- 
men jurors, the Board of Lady Managers begs leave to 


state that names of women jurors for eighty-three groups 
have been approved by the Board. We have been in- 
formed that the classified Hst of groups is in your hands, 
and we would be glad to receive it at the earliest pos- 
sible date. 

Very respectfully, 

(Signed) M. Margaretta Manning, 


&r. Louis, July 25, 1904. 

Madam President, — The Exposition Company, 
through the Executive Committee, has approved the 
accompanying report of the Director of Exhibits, and 
hereby certifies to the Board of Lady Managers the num- 
ber of groups in which the exhibits have been produced 
in whole or in part by female labor. 

This is in response to your letter addressed to the 
President under date of July 22, and this day submitted 
to the Executive Committee. 

The groups so certified are as follows: 

Group 1. Elementary Education. 

2. Secondary Education. 

3. Higher Education. 

4. Special Education in Fine Arts. 
7. Education of Defectives. 


Group 9. Paintings and Drawings. 

11. Sculpture. 

12. Architecture. 

14. Original Objects in Art Workmanship. 


Group 16. Photography. 

17, Books and Publications — Bookbinding. 

18. Maps and Apparatus for Geography, Cosmography, Topo- 



Group 37. Decoration and Fixed Furniture of Buildings and Dwellings. 
45. Ceramics. 

62. Equipment and Processes used in Bleaching, Dyeing, Print- 
ing, and Finishing Textiles in their Tarious stages. 
53. Equipment and Processes used in Sewing and Making Wear- 
ing Apparel. 

58. Laces, Embroidery, and Trimmings. 

59. Industries Producing Wearing Apparel for Men, Women, 

and Children. 
61. Various Industries connected with Clothing. 








Group 78. Farm Equipment — Methods of Improving Land. 

84. Vegetable Food Products — Agricultural Seeds. 

88. Bread and Pastry. 

89. Preserved Meat, Fish, Vegetables, and Fruit. 

90. Sugar and Confectionery — Condiments and Relishes. 
92. Wines and Brandies. 




Group 107. Pomology. 











Group 129. Study and Investigation of Social and Economic Conditions. 

133. Methods of Industrial Remuneration. 

136. Housing of the Working Classes. 

137. The Liquor Question. 
139. Charities and Corrections. 
141. Municipal Improvement. 


Very respectfully, 
(Signed) David R. Francis, President. 

To Mrs. Daniel Manning, 

President Board of Lady Managers. 

&r. Louis, Mo., July 30, 1904. 
Hon. David R. Francis, 

President Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 

Administration Building. 

Dear Sir, — The accompanying list of eighty-three 
women jurors, to serve on the Committee of Awards, 
of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, has been made 
by the Board of Lady Managers, and is hereby sub- 
mitted for approval to the Exposition Company and to 
the National Commission. 

This list has been made according to the authoriza- 
tion granted to the Board in Section 6 of the Acts of 
Congress, approved March 3, 1901, to wit: "To nomi- 
nate one member of all committees authorized to award 
prizes for such exhibits as shall have been produced, in 
whole or in part, by female labor." 

Very respectfully, 
(Signed) M. Margaretta Manning, President. 

(Signed) Frances Marion Hanger, 

Chairman Committee of Awards. 


August 4, 1904. 

My dear Madam President, — Responding to 
your communication of July 30, transmitting a list of 
women jurors, and alternate jurors, that you recom- 
mend for appointment, and which you submit for ap- 
proval by the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company 
and the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Commission, 
I beg to state that under the rules and regulations of the 
Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company, approved by 
the National Commission, the Board of Lady Managers 
may appoint 32 women jurors and women alternate 

As the number of names submitted by you greatly 
exceeds the number you are permitted to nominate, 
under the rules and regulations above referred to, the 
list is herewith returned for revision. 

If the names you have submitted for appointment 
upon the groups for which the Board of Lady Managers 
are entitled to make nominations, are the ones you de- 
sire in these particular groups, they will be entertained 
for confirmation, but it may be you will desire to read- 
just your hst. 

Very respectfully, 

D. R. Francis, President. 

To Mrs. Daniel Manning, 

President Board of Lady Managers. 

August 9, 1904. 

To the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company, 
Hon. David R. Francis, President. 
Dear Sir, — In response to your letter received 
August 8, in re list of nominations for the women jurors 
made by the Board of Lady Managers, I beg leave to 


state that said list was made under what the Board be- 
lieved to be the interpretation of Section 6 of the Act 
of Congress approved March 3, 1901, which would seem 
to provide for the appointment of "one member of all 
committees authorized to award prizes for such ex- 
hibits as may have been produced, in whole or in part, 
by female labor." 

We regret exceedingly that "in the discretion of said 
commission and corporation" referred to in said Act, 
the list of groups has been reduced from eighty-three to 

We respectfully ask, however, that a favorable con- 
sideration may be given to four additional groups, viz: 
125, Literature; 126, Somatology; 127, Ethnology; and 
128, Ethnography. These Groups have been specially 
designated by the Chief of the Department of Anthro- 
pology, the names of nominees submitted are those ap- 
proved by him, and it is most desirable that this request 
be granted. 

We herewith hand you revised list, readjusted as per 

your instructions. 

Respectfully submitted. 

Frances Marion Hanger, 

Chairman of Committee of Awards. 

EDUCATION (Department A) 
Group 1. Elementary Education 
Principals Alternates 

Miss Anna Tolman Smith, Miss Clara Hellwig, 

Washington, D. C. Plainfield, N. J. 

Group 2. Secondary Education 

Miss Anna G. MacDougal, Miss Mary Boyce Temple, 

Chicago, 111. Knoxrille, Tenn. 


Group 3. Higher Edtication 
Principals Alternates 

Miss Caroline Hazzard, Mrs. Charles Perkins, 

Wellesley, Mass. Knoxville, Tenn. 

Group 4. Fine Art 
Mrs. E. A. Thayer, Mrs. Charles Cary, 

Denver, Colo. Buffalo, N. Y. 

Group 7. State Instiivtions 
Mrs. Sarah Piatt Decker, Mrs. George Noyes, 

Denver, Colo. Milwaukee, Wis. 

Group 9. Painting and Drawing 
Mrs. J. Montgomery Sears, Miss Mary Solari, 

Boston, Mass. Memphis, Tenn. 

ART (Department B) 

Group 11. Sculpture 
Mrs. Elizabeth St. John Matthews, Miss Enid Yandell, 

New York, N. Y. Louisville, Ky. 

Group 12. Architecture 
Miss Rose Weld, Miss Susan N. Ketcham, 

Newport News, Va. Carnegie Hall, N. Y. 

Group 14. Art Workmanship 
Mrs. Eugene Field, Miss Alice Barber Stevens, 

Buena Park, 111. Philadelphia, Pa. , 

LIBERAL ARTS (Department C) 

Group 16. Photography 
Miss Frances B. Johnston, Mrs. Charles Ladd, 

Washington, D. C. Portland, Oregon. 

Group 17. Publishing and Bookbinding 
Mrs. Horace S. Smith, Miss Bulkley, 

Chicago, 111. Hillside, Mo. 

Group 18. Maps, Apparatus for Geography 
Mrs. Fannie Hicks Woolwine, Mrs. M. G. Scrutchin, 

Nashville, Tenn. Atlanta, Ga. 


MANUFACTURES (Department D) 

Group 37. Furniture and Household Decoration 
Principals Alternates 

Mrs. Candace Wheeler, Mrs. R. A. Edgerton, 

New York, N. Y. Berwyn, 111. 

Group 45. Ceramics 
Mrs. Isaac Boyd, Miss Henrietta Ord Jones, 

Atlanta, Ga. New York City. 

Group 52. Bleaching and Dyeing, etc. 
Miss Madolin Wynn, Mrs. W. S. Major, 

Deerfield, Mass. Shelbyville, Ind. 

Group 53. Equipment and Processes used in making Clothes 
Mrs. Elisha Dyer, Sr., Mrs. Frederick Nathan, 

Providence, R. I. New York City. 

Group 68. Lace Trimming and Embroidery 
Mrs. E. D. Wood, Mrs. Noble Prentiss, 

Indianapolis, Ind. Leavenworth, Kan. 

Group 59. Industries Producing Wearing Apparel 
Miss Margaret Summers, Miss Mary Montgomery, 

Louisville, Ky. Portland, Oregon. 

Group 61. Industries connected with Clothing 
Mrs. F. K. Bowes, Miss Runley, 

Chicago, El. W. Clinton, N. Y. 

AGRICULTURE (Department H) 
Group 78. Agriculture — Methods of improving Lands 
Mrs. W. H. Felton, Miss Myra Dock, 

Cartersville, Ga. Harrisburg, Pa. 

Group 84. Vegetable Produds 
Mrs. Christine Terhune Herrick, Mrs. E. W. Williams, 

Haworth, N. J. Winona, Minn. 

Group 88. Bread and Pastry 
Mrs. F. H. Pugh, Mrs. John B. Henderson, 

Bellevue, Neb. Washington, D. C. 


Group 89. Preserved Meats, Fish, Vegetables, and Fruit 
Principals Alternates 

Mrs. E. L. Lamb, Mrs. Minnie H. Lawton, 

Jackson, Miss. Omaha, Neb. 

Growp 90. Sugar and Confectionery, Condiments and Relishes 
Miss Carolyn Hempstead, Mrs. R. P. Bland, 

Little Rock, Ark. Lebanon, Mo. 

Growp 92. Wines and Brandies 
Miss Cruse, Mrs. W. C. Ralston, 

Helena, Montana. San Francisco, Cal. 

HORTICULTURE (Department J) 

Group 107. Pomology 
Mrs. M. B. R. Day, Mrs. Robert Fulton, 

Frankfort, Ky. Buffalo, N. Y. 

ANTHROPOLOGY (Department N) 

Group 125. Literature 
Miss Grace King, Miss Annie Scoville, 

New Orleans, La. Stamford, Conn. 

Group 126. Somatology 
Miss Alice Fletcher, Mrs. Nelson H. Doubleday, 

Washington, D. C. New York, N. Y. 

Group 127. Ethnology 
Mrs. -Alice P. Henderson, Miss Matilda Coxe Stevenson, 

Tacoma, Washington. Washington, D. C. 

Group 128. Ethnography 
Mrs. Zelia Nuttall, Miss Cora Peters, 

Cambridge, Mass. Washington, D. C, 

SOCIAL ECONOMY (Department O) 

Group 129. Study and Investigation of Social and Economic Conditions 
Miss Caroline Greisheimer, Mrs. J. M. Glenn, 

Washington, D. C. Baltimore, Md. 

Group 135. Provident Institutions 
Mrs. Eliza Eads How, Miss Margaret Wade, 

St. Louis, Mo. Washington, D. C. 

Group 136. Housing of the Working Classes 
Miss Jane Addams, Mrs. H. G. R. Wright, 

Chicago, 111. Denver, Colo. 


Group 137. The Liquor Question 
Principals Aivternates 

Countess of Aberdeen. Mrs. Ralph Trautman, 

New York, N. Y. 

Group 139. Charities and Correction 
Miss Mary E. Perry, Miss Josephine Woodward, 

St. Louis, Mo. Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Group 141. Municipal Improvement 
Mrs. E. P. Turner, Mrs. Conde Hamlin, 

Dallas, Texas. St. Paul, Minn. 

The foregoing list was confirmed by the Exposition 
Company and the National Commission (August 21). 

The Group Jurors were notified at the earliest pos- 
sible moment, of their appointment. 

The time that most of the jurors began to serve was 
September 1st. 

The list of jurors who served under appointment from 
the Board of Lady Managers was as follows : — 



Group 1. Miss Anna Tolman Smith, Washington, D. C. 

2. Miss Anna G. MacDougal, Chicago, Dl. 

3. Miss Mary Boyce Temple, Knoxville, Tenn. 

4. Mrs. E. a. Thayer, Denver, Colo. 

7. Miss Hope Loughborough, Cleveland, Ohio. 


Group 9. Miss Mary Solari, Memphis, Tenn. 

11. Mrs. Elizabeth St. John Matthews, New York. 

12. Miss Rose Weld, Newport News, Va. 
14. Mrs. Eugene Field, Buena Park, HI. 

Liberal Arts 
Group 16. Miss Frances Benjamin Johnston, Washington, D. C. 

17. Mrs. Horace S. Smith, Chicago, 111. 

18. Mrs. W. M. Woolwine, Nashville, Tenn. 





Group 37. 

Mrs. R. A. Edgerton, 

Milwaukee, Wis. 


Mrs. Isaac Boyd, 

Atlanta, Ga. 

Groups 53 & 61, 

f Mrs. F. K. Bowes, 
I Mrs. A. G. Harrow, 

Chicago, 111. 
Ottumwa, la. 

r Mrs. E. D. Wood, 

Indianapolis, Ind. 

58 &59 

. < Miss Margaret Summers, 

Louisville, Ky. 

(Mrs. W.S.Major, 

Shelbyville, Ind. 


Group 78. 

Mrs. W. H. Felton, 

Cartersville, Ga. 


Mrs. F. H. Pugh, 

BellevTie, Neb. 


Mrs. E. L. Trfimb, 

Jackson, Miss. 


Miss Carolyn Hempstead, 


Little Rock, Ark. 

Group 107. 

Mrs. M. B. R. Day, 


Frankfort, Ky. 

Group 125. 

Miss Alice C. Fletcher, 

Washington, D. C, 


Mrs. Alice Palmer Henderson, 

Washington, D. C, 


Miss Cora Peters, 

Washington, D. C. 


Mrs. Zelia Nuttall, 

Social Economy 

Cambridge, Mass. 

Group 129. 

Miss Caroline Greisheimer, 

Washington, D. C. 


Miss Margaret Wade, 

Washington, D. C. 


Miss Jane Addams, 

Chicago, HI. 


Miss Mary Perry, 

St. Louis, Mo. 


f Mrs. E. P. Turner, 
( Mrs. Cond^ Hamlin, 

Dallas, Texas. 

St. Paul, Minn. 

The appointment of the Departmental Jurors had 
been provided for in the extensive jury Hst approved 
April 29. But at the request of three of the members 
of the National Commission, the list of Departmental 
Jurors was further confirmed at a meeting of the Board 
called for that purpose on September 20, and these 
jurors began their work almost immediately. 


The following list of Department Jurors was sent to 
the Exposition Company, and the National Commis- 
sion : — 


Department A, Education 


Mrs. W. E. Fischel, Miss Anna Tolman Smith 

St. Louis, Mo. Washington, D. C. 

Department B, Art 

Mrs. Montgomery Sears, Miss Cecelia Beaux, 

Boston, Mass. New York City. 

Department C, Liberal Arts 

Miss Olive Seward, Mrs. H. A. Langford, 

Washington, D. C. Chicago, 111. 

Department D, Manufactures 

Miss Thekia M. Bernays, Mrs. W. H. Clapp, 

St. Louis, Mo. New York City. 

Department E, Machinery 

Miss Kate Gleason, Miss Edith J. Griswold, 

Rochester, N. Y. New York City. 

Department F, Electricity 

Miss Hope Loughborough, Miss Madolin Wynn, 

Cleveland, Ohio. Deerfield, Mass. 

Department G, Transportation Exhibits 
Miss Rose Weld, Mrs. Robert Fulton, 

Newport News, Va. Buffalo, N. Y. 

Department H, Agricuuture 

Mrs. Martha Shute, Mrs. Edward Gilchrist Low, 

Denver, Colo. Groton, Mass. 


Department J, Horticuuture 
Mrs. Ida L. Turner, Mrs. M. B. R. Day, , 

Fort Worth, Texas. Frankfort, Ky. 

Department K, Forestry 

Miss Myra Dock, Mrs. J. M. Glenn, 

Harrisburg, Pa. Baltimore, Md. 

Department L, Mines and Metallurot 

Mrs. M. G. Scrutchin, Mrs. E. L. Lamb, 

Atlanta, Ga. Jackson, Miss. 

Department M, Fish and Game 

Mrs. Mary Stuart Armstrong, Mrs. C. E. Hatch, 

Chicago, 111. Kentland, Ind. 

Department N, Anthropology 

Mrs. Zelia Nuttall, Mrs. Emily Cook, 

Cambridge, Mass. Washington, D. C. 

Department O, Social Economy 

Miss Jane Addams, Mrs. Lilian Cantrell Bay, 

Chicago, 111. St. Louis, Mo. 

Department P, Physical Cui/rrjRE 

Miss Clara S. Hellwig, Miss Margaret Wade, 

Plainfield, N. J. Washington, D. C. 

It was found, upon communicating with the above- 
named, that very many could not serve, and no provi- 
sion having been made for alternates, many changes 
became necessary. The following list was subsequently 
transmitted to the Exposition Company and National 
Commission, two even of these, however, faihng to 
serve : — 

Department A, Education^ Mrs. W. E. Fischel, 
St. Louis, Mo. 


Department B, Art, Miss Mary Bullock, Hillside, Mo. 

Department C, Liberal Arts, Mrs. H. A. Langford, 
Chicago, 111. 

Department D, Manufactures, Miss Thekla M. Ber- 
nays, St. Louis, Mo. 

Department E, Machinery, Miss Edith J. Griswold, 
New York City. 

Department F, Electricity, Miss_Hope Loughborough, 
Cleveland, Ohio. 

Department G, Transportation Exhibits, Miss Rose 
Weld, Newport News, Va. 

Department H, Agriculture, Mrs. Richard P. Bland, 
Lebanon, Mo. 

Department J, Horticulture, Mrs. Ida L. Turner, 
Fort Worth, Texas. 

Department K, Forestry, Mrs. J. M. Glenn, Balti- 
more, Md. 

Department L, Mines and Metallurgy, Mrs. M. G. 
Scrutchin, Atlanta, Ga. 

Department M, Fish and Game, Mrs. Mary Stuart 
Armstrong, Chicago, 111. 

Department N, Anthropology, Mrs. Zelia Nuttall, 
Cambridge, Mass. 

Department O, Social Economy, Miss Jane Addams, 
Chicago, 111. 

The Committee of Awards regrets that the discre- 
tionary power of the Exposition Company restricted 
the appointive power of the Board, and that the late 
hour of the appointments prevented a number of the 
jurors from accepting. 


It was a great pleasure to the members of the Board 
and the Committee to meet and to entertain the clever 
and attractive women jurors, who served with distinc- 
tion in their work, and who in every possible way 
showed their appreciation of the honor conferred upon 
them by the Board of Lady Managers of the Louisiana 
Purchase Exposition. 

Respectfully submitted. 

Frances Marion Hanger, Chairman. 

Jennie Gillmore Knott. 

Lavinia H. Egan. 

Fannie Lowry Porter. 

Helen Boice-Hunsicker. 


The tenth meeting of the Board was called on Novem- 
ber 9, 1904. The Rotating Committee and many mem- 
bers of the Board remained on duty from this time 
until the closing day of the Exposition. Many matters 
in connection with the closing of the work of the Board 
in St. Louis were disposed of, and the following reso- 
lution concerning the preparation of its final report was 
adopted : — 

Resolved, That the President of this Board be re- 
quested to make a final report of the work of this Board. 

The following is the final report of the House Com- 
mittee for the Exposition period : — 

To the President and Board of Lady Managers of the 

Louisiana Purchase Exposition. 

Ladies, — Your House Committee begs to submit the 
following : — 

On the 30th day of April, 1904, at the opening of the 
greatest Exposition the world has ever known, and 
commemorating one of the most important events in 
the history of our country, the Board of Lady Managers, 
created by act of Congress and appointed by the Na- 
tional Commission, designed by the wisdom and fore- 
thought of one of our most dearly beloved Chief Execu- 
tives, to represent the women of America in setting 
forth to the world woman's part not only in the making 


of the Exposition, but in the real expansion and develop- 
ment of our great Nation, found itself, by a combina- 
tion of circumstances, fortuitous or otherwise, resolved 
into a committee on entertainment with a commodious 
and elegantly appointed home to call its own, and the 
appropriation of $100,000 to spend on furnishing, enter- 
taining, and necessary expenses of the Board. It is, 
therefore, the pleasure of this, your House Committee, 
to report for the entire Exposition period beginning 
April 30, 1904, and ending December 1, 1904, that 
the House was in order each day from 10 o'clock a. m. 
to 6 o'clock p. M. for the reception of the public and for 
a series of entertainments, which, by reason of the 
number of distinguished men and women thus brought 
together, were international in character, and of a nature 
and brilliancy in the highest degree pleasing to the 
Board itself. The informal afternoon teas made a most 
attractive and interesting feature of the Board's hospi- 
tality during the Exposition. For every month, save 
August, a number of formal affairs were given, includ- 
ing luncheons, receptions, and dinners. 

It was particularly fitting that the initial entertain- 
ment by the Board of Lady Managers in its Exposition 
home should have been given in honor of the National 
Commission, the Government's representative in the 
great World's Fair. To this dinner, given on the even- 
ing of the 30th of April, under the trying circumstances 
attendant upon a day strenuous with opening exercises 
and the disadvantages of the rapid adjustment of house- 
hold arrangements, one hundred guests were bidden. 
President Carter of the National Commission was toast- 

■i.x ;#*->, 



master on this occasion, and toasts were given by 
President David R. Francis, Senator Daniels, Congress- 
man Tawney, and Hon. M. H. de Young. 

A reception in honor of Mrs. David R. Francis fol- 
lowed on May 9, to which 500 guests were invited. 

On May 17, a brilliant company of 500 was enter- 
tained at an afternoon reception in honor of the re- 
presentatives of the Army and Navy, in and near St. 
Louis. Ladies of the Army and Navy assisted in receiv- 
ing, and many distinguished persons were present. 

On May 19, immediately following the Louisiana 
Purchase Day exercises of the General Federation of 
Women's Clubs, a luncheon was given by the Board 
of Lady Managers, in honor of the delegates to the 
General Federation. 

Miss Alice Roosevelt was the honoree of a luncheon 
given on May 31, to which 200 guests were bidden. 
The affair was most charming and successful. 

Having thus during the opening month announced 
itself, the Board of Lady Managers continued during 
the Exposition to contribute its quota to the social life 
of the great Fair. 

The distinguished foreigners whom it was the privi- 
lege of the Board especially to honor, were the repre- 
sentatives of foreign Governments, with a reception on 
June 17 ; Prince Pu Lun, to whom a dinner was given 
on July 10 ; and Prince Fushimi, for whom a reception 
was held on November 22. Receptions to the Inter- 
parliamentary Union on September 12, and to the Con- 
gress of Arts and Sciences on September 20, were also 
international in character, many distinguished foreigners 
being present. 


Among the special functions given, none was more 
successful or more brilliant than the dinner in honor 
of President David R. Francis, on November 12, to 
which 170 guests were invited. 

The Building of the Board of Lady Managers, with 
the changes made by the Board, was both in its ap- 
pointments and location admirably adapted for the 
purpose for which it was set aside, and in itself was a 
tribute to the necessity and advantage of cooperation 
on the part of the Board. 

The whole lower floor of the building was beautifully 
fitted up for the reception and entertainment of guests, 
and the upper floor was reserved for the private use of 
the Board, being divided into Board room, Office, Re- 
ception room, apartments for the President of the 
Board, and accommodations for all members of the 
Board who wished to avail themselves of the hospitality 
of the home while in the city. 

The House was conducted as any well organized 
household under the direction of the Rotating Com- 
mittee composed of the resident members in St. Louis, 
and the members rotating each month. They were ably 
assisted by a very capable hostess. The House Com- 
mittee is greatly indebted to Miss Julia Ten Eyck 
McBlair, for the gracious manner in which she served 
the Board as hostess during the period of the Exposition. 

Without wishing to discriminate in the least, thanks 
are especially due to Weil's Band, of St. Louis, Mo., 
for its never-failing courtesy in supplying music for the 
entertainments of the Board whenever it was possible 
for its engagements to permit, and to the leader, Mr. 
William Weil, for his personal interest. 



To the Commissioner from Ceylon, Mr. Stanley 
Bois, the Board would especially express its thanks 
for the tea from his Commission, which was used and 
enjoyed by the members of the Board and their guests, 
and also to the representatives of the Japanese Com- 
mission who presented the chests of tea from which, 
together with that sent by the Commissioner from 
Ceylon, all afternoon teas and receptions and luncheons %i. 

of the Board were supplied, to the great pleasure and 
enjoyment of their tea-drinking friends. 

To the Department of Horticulture for their gifts of 
choice fruit, and to the California Commission for 
beautiful basket of fruit on "California Day." 

To the Agent, who through Messrs. Nicholson & 
Co., of St. Louis, presented two cases of champagne; 
and to the Colorado Commission for baskets of fruit. 

The House Committee particularly appreciated the 
courtesy extended to the Board of Lady Managers by 
Lieutenant-Colonel Kingsbury and Lieutenant-Colonel 
Fountain, and officers of the Jefferson Guards, for 
constantly providing a guard for their building. 
Respectfully submitted. 

Salena V. Ernest, Chairman. 

It was the earnest wish of some of the members of 
the Board, at a very early period of its existence, to 
establish and maintain, if possible, a Day Nursery or 
Creche on the Exposition Grounds, in order that suit- 
able provision might be made for children whose par- 
ents might wish to have them cared for during the day, 
and thus afford to those whose time and means were 
extremely limited an opportunity to see as much of the 


Exposition in as brief a space as possible. Ways and 
means were frequently discussed, but the absence of 
funds and the uncertainty in regard to substantial aid 
were sources of much anxiety and delay. Estimates were 
obtained of cost of building, however, plans were drawn 
ready for work to be begun the first practicable moment, 
and all information as to best methods and equipment 
.t was secured, in order that no time might be lost should 

it later be found possible to proceed with the enter- 
prise. The idea was viewed with much favor by both 
the President of the Exposition Company and the 
Director of Exhibits, and it was hoped the Exposition 
Company would regard this as one of the "suggestions" 
from the Board which President Francis had said the 
Executive Committee would "take under serious con- 
sideration," but on the 15th of August, 1903, President 
Francis wrote to the President, Mrs. Blair: — 

My idea is that we should not permit any one State 
to have charge of these Day Nurseries. I think the 
Board of Lady Managers should have entire charge, and 
hope they will be able to raise the money without mak- 
ing inroads on the treasury of the Exposition Company. 

Subsequently, however, the Exposition Company 
agreed to appropriate $35,000 for the purpose of erect- 
ing the building, but later granted a concession for a 
similar enterprise on the grounds. When the Board 
eventually obtained its appropriation of $100,000, it was 
thought that the work might be begun immediately; 
but as some misunderstanding had arisen in the minds 
of the members as to the terms of the original proposi- 


tion, upon further investigation it was found that, 
whereas in the first place it had been represented that 
the Creche would be self-sustaining, it now became 
evident that the plan had grown beyond all anticipated 
or intended proportions, and that instead of being self- 
supporting the Board might be called upon for un- 
limited and unexpected outlay. 

As all the members had become greatly interested 
in the project, they felt keenly disappointed when it 
became evident that it would be necessary to abandon 
the undertaking. Desiring, however, to take some part 
in this useful work, and being informed that the con- 
cession that had been granted for a similar purpose 
was in need of funds to enable it to employ additional 
nurses and make it possible to care for more children, 
on July 14, 1904, at their mid-summer meeting, the 
following resolution, presented by Mrs. Hanger, was 
adopted by the Board : — 

Be it resolved, — That the Board of Lady Mana- 
gers set apart, and turn over, to the persons in charge 
of the Model Play-Ground, Nursery, and Lost Children 
work, the sum of Five Thousand Dollars ($5000) to 
assist in carrying on these projects on the Exposition 

Mrs. John M. Holcombe was made Chairman of the 
Committee having this appropriation in charge, and 
her final Report is as follows : — 


To the President and Board of Lady Managers of the 

Louisiana Purchase Exposition. 

Ladies, — The members of the Board of Lady 
Managers were from the beginning of their organization 
deeply interested in the need of caring for little children 
at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, and various 
plans were under consideration at an early date. 

To have a model creche was the desire of the Presi- 
dent and members of the Board, and it was with great 
satisfaction that arrangements were made for a very 
perfect equipment. 

A practical philanthropy in full working order would 
prove also an exhibit of the most approved and up-to- 
date methods, — at once a charity, an example, an in- 

The Exposition Company made a generous appro- 
priation, the sum of $35,000 being allowed for the 
building and furnishing, and very beautiful designs 
were made and considered. Infants were to be cared 
for by trained nurses, receiving attention and considera- 
tion possible only to babies of the twentieth century, 
and altogether in advance of the simple and natural 
conditions of baby life prior to the closing years of the 
nineteenth century. Special foods, specially treated, 
specially constructed bottles — in fact, everything special, 
and disinfected from the nurse and crib down to the 
smallest minutiae. 

The charge was to be 50 cents a day, and estimates 
formed on experience went to show that on this basis 
the creche would be self-sustaining when once estab- 
lished and started in running order. 

Shortly before the opening of the Fair, however. 


and at a moment when the Exposition Company was 
passing through most trying experiences and needed 
all possible funds, it was found that unfavorable aspects 
had arisen. At the March meeting of the Board, 1904, 
and only a few weeks prior to the opening of the Expo- 
sition, it was learned that two concessions of a nature 
similar to the creche had been made, where the charge 
for children would be but 25 cents a day. Already the 
Board had heard some buzz of criticism that 50 cents 
was too high a price for benefit to poor people. Thus 
there seemed to be established a rate of income, which 
for the requirements of the creche conducted under 
great expense would be entirely inadequate. There 
were apparently no sponsors for the undertaking but 
the Board of Lady Managers; and a steady loss of 25 
cents on each child, for a period of seven months, would 
pile on the losses to unknown and quite incalculable 

It is true the Board had received a sum of $100,000. 
This was to cover all expenses of the Board, whose 
members were the official hostesses of the Fair. Every- 
thing was to be conducted at this great Exposition in the 
most munificent manner possible. Ceremonies and 
entertainments which had been given at the dedicatory 
exercises in 1903 indicated a scale of elegance and 
boundless hospitality; in fact, hospitality was to be a 
distinguishing feature of this great exposition at St. 
Louis. The Board of Lady Managers formed a part 
of the hospitable equipment, welcoming the world to 
the official home of the Exposition, and were to fulfill 
one of woman's missions, and entertain in a manner 
and on a scale harmonious with the greatest and most 


beautiful exposition the world had ever looked upon. 
For these purposes the money must be made to last 
throughout the seven months of the coming Fair. No 
more fatal thing could occur for the fair name of the 
Board than to spend early and inconsiderately, and to 
be met later with pecuniary embarrassments and com- 

The estimate for the opening expenses of the creche 
exceeded by some $16,000 the sum appropriated by 
the Exposition Company. The members of the Board 
might have felt justified in furnishing this sum, but 
there loomed before them the vast bulk of losses which 
must follow as the result of cutting the price from 50 
cents to 25 cents on each of the many children to be 
accommodated at the creche. It was an enormous 

Consultation with President Francis and some of 
the directors seemed to indicate that the saving to them 
of the promised $35,000 would be very desirable. The 
building was about to be commenced, and only a few 
hours were granted the Board for their decision. It 
was obviously impossible to enter upon a work involv- 
ing great and unknown expense pregnant with such 
possibilities of loss and failure, and so with the deepest 
regret the members of the Board saw their cherished 
castle in the air — the beautiful, useful creche — fade 
and disappear. Words can hardly express the dis- 
couragements and heart-sinking of the members over 
this failure of their fond aspirations. 

Mrs. Ruth Ashley Hirschfield opened her Model 
Play-Ground on May 23, 1904. From the beginning 
it seemed to meet the requirements in a simple but direct 


and effective manner. So successful was it that soon the 
demands outgrew the accommodations, and the pos- 
sibiHties of extending the work were such that Mrs. 
Hirschfield welcomed the aid of the Board of Lady 
Managers. Very soon after the opening of the Model 
Play-Ground, the President and members of the Board 
became interested, realizing its needs and possibilities, 
many of which had been carefully — even affectionately 
— considered for a long period. 

At the July meeting a committee was appointed to 
confer with Mrs. Hirschfield, and the sum of $5000 
was appropriated for use in the development and care 
of the Model Play-Ground and Day Nursery, and a 
special stipulation made regarding the care of lost 
children. Arrangements were entered into as to times 
of payment. Mrs. Hirschfield was to have the entire 
responsibility; the Board gave her their confidence 
and hearty support, and five monthly payments of 
$1000 each. 

Results proved the soundness of the theories as well 
as the administration of Mrs. Hirschfield, and no 
appropriation could have been more advantageously 

It gives me the greatest satisfaction to report that the 
money appropriated filled a distinct need and enabled 
Mrs. Hirschfield to enlarge the scope and power of her 
work up to the very day that the Fair closed its doors, 
on December 2, 1904. It seemed, indeed, to meet every 
want, and no child was ever turned from its hospitable 
doors. To this bright and happy spot, parents could 
bring their children, even wee babies, and be them- 
selves free to go unencumbered, and enjoy the beauties 


and wonders spread so lavishly before them, and happy 
in the consciousness that their little ones were receiving 
the tenderest care, and were undoubtedly enjoying the 
many comforts and attractions provided for their wel- 
fare and entertainment. Here the wage-earner at the 
Fair could bring her little child, leaving it with the same 
cheerful confidence. This also was the haven for lost 
children who were brought there by the police, or by 
members of the Jefferson Guard, and here were they 
found by their distracted parents, or from here they 
were sent to their own abodes under safe escort. 

The care of lost children began on June 6, when the 
first lost child was brought to the Play-Ground. The 
system of caring for lost children was as follows: Lost 
children found by members of the Jefferson Guard or 
the police were brought to the Model Play-Ground 
according to orders received from headquarters. Every 
child brought in was recorded, and an aluminum tag 
bearing a certain number was attached to each. They 
were cared for and entertained, and had all the privi- 
leges accorded to children who were registered by their 
parents. After being recorded, they were handed over 
to the matron to be washed and fed and given all neces- 
sary attention. They were then induced to join groups 
of other children of their own age. As a rule they quickly 
forgot their sorrows in play. They were not permitted 
to leave the Play-Ground until called for or sent home. 
If not called for, they were escorted to their homes, or, 
in case of children of suflScient age and intelligence, to 
the car, by the attendants of the Play-Ground. Parents 
inquiring for lost children were directed to this place 
by guards and police. If the child had not yet been 


brought in, the inquirer was informed the child would 
be taken care of. The telephone and electric service 
proved of great assistance. The system kept track not 
only of those who were brought in, but also of those who 
were reported lost, and the Louisiana Purchase Exposi- 
tion should have credit for a "Lost Children System" 
so complete that children separated from parents or 
escorts were restored to them in every case. "The 
method used for the care of lost children is the most 
complete and far-reaching system that has yet been 
devised for the use of any world's fair." (World's Fair 
Bulletin, September, 1904.) 

Mrs. Hirschfield gave the following gratifying state- 
ment in her September report : — 

The $5000 appropriated by the Board of Lady Man- 
agers has assisted very materially in the ability to handle 
the increasing number of lost children, the fund en- 
abling the Play-Ground to employ a larger number 
of trained assistants, and to add many and attractive 

The expense incurred in the care of infants and lost 
children was not contemplated in the original play- 
ground plan. 

The accommodations for the children included bath- 
ing and laundry facilities ; clothing was furnished in 
some instances ; two luncheons were served daily ; kinder- 
garten classes were held morning and afternoon; ath- 
letic exercises and baths were furnished, and many were 
the children, boys particularly, who thus enjoyed luxu- 
ries not otherwise obtainable. 


Among the children attending the classes were a num- 
ber who came regularly, including children admitted 
free, whose parents were employed in the Exposition 
Grounds. The fee charged to parents who left their chil- 
dren to be cared for was, except in the case of small 
infants, 25 cents a day. For babies requiring the service 
of trained nurses, 50 cents. In the case of parents too poor 
to pay, no charge was made. 

The ages of the children ranged from 2 weeks to 14 
years. The number cared for by months was as follows: 

May and June, 483; July, 864; August, 1160; Sep- 
tember, 1732; October, 1922; November, 1189; mak- 
ing a total of 7350. 

The number of lost children brought to the Play- 
Ground was: in June, 94; July, 132; August, 328; 
September, 248; October, 209; November, 156; total, 

Children admitted free were newsboys, oflBce boys, 
messenger boys, all children earning their living, or 
whose parents were employed within the Exposition 
Grounds; many of these came regularly. The hospi- 
tality of the Play- Ground was also open to the children 
of the orphan asylums and other charitable institutions, 
and to the children of the City Play-Ground and kin- 

The number of children admitted free was, in May 
and June, 336; July, 554; August, 8616; September, 
3916; October, 1789; November, 5700. 

On November 2, the children of all nations were re- 
ceived by Miss Helen M. Gould, who gave a souvenir 
to each child. 

On November 24, the children of all nations attended 


Thanksgiving dinner and ceremonies at the Play- 
Ground. 326 children were seated at the tables. After 
dinner they played and enjoyed the many features pro- 
vided for their amusement. Every child took home 
a box of dainties and a souvenir of Thanksgiving Day, 
— that traditional New England festivity. A member 
of the National Commission planned the affair, and it 
proved a notable success. Children of twenty-eight na- 
tionalities or tribes were gathered on the Play-Ground 
at one time. No such representation ever took place be- 
fore, or was possible, except at the Model Play-Ground 
and Day Nursery of the Louisiana Purchase Exposi- 

It continued to be of service even to the closing hour. 
On December 1, the final day of the fair, 48 children, 
of whom 19 were less than one year old, were checked; 
2000 children were admitted free of charge, and 31 lost 
children were cared for and returned in safety to their 
homes or guardians. 

In reviewing the experiences of the Fair, it is gratify- 
ing to realize that although the members of the Board 
of Lady Managers were not able to carry out one of 
their most cherished desires, and suffered keen disap- 
pointment in the abandonment of the creche, still they 
had the pleasure of rendering material aid to a beautiful 
work, for such certainly was the Model Play-Ground 
and Day Nursery. 

Mrs. Hirschfield states that the assistance given by 
the Board of Lady Managers cannot be measured, for 
far beyond the money value of their appropriation was 
the power of their influence, and the interest aroused 
was not alone for the occasion of the Fair, but would 


reach far into the future, affecting other undertakings 
of a similar nature. 

On the day following the close of the Exposition, one 
of the most able of the directors of the Exposition ex- 
pressed his approval of the course of the Board of Lady 
Managers. As hostesses of the Fair, he complimented 
them gracefully, and for the attitude they had been 
obliged to take regarding the creche, of which he had 
been critical, he was happy to say he had become con- 
verted, and he was convinced that the Board had acted 
prudently and wisely; that undoubtedly the attempt to 
carry on the elaborate and expensive creche would have 
ended in financial failure and embarrassments; that 
the aid given Mrs. Hirschfield had made the Play- 
Ground and Day Nursery so effective that it had met all 
needs in a most acceptable manner, and had proven one 
of the most interesting and satisfactory features of the 
great Exposition. 

Respectfully submitted. 

Emily S. G. Holcombe, Chairman. 

Helen M. Gould. 

Frances Marion Hanger. 

The following is the final Report of the Committee on 
Entertainment and Ceremonies : — 

To the Board of Lady Managers of the Louisiana Pur- 
chase Exposition. 
Ladies, — The members of the Board of Lady Man- 
agers took possession of their new building which had 
been completed and furnished and was ready for occu- 
pancy at the time they arrived in St. Louis for the 



meeting, April 28, which was the first to be held in their 
own house, and afforded them the earliest opportunity 
to see the structure and the result of the work that had 
been done in preparmg and furnishing it for their use. 

The first entertainment given by them was in honor 
of the President and members of the Louisiana Pur- 
chase Exposition Commission on the evening of April 
30, the oflflcial Opening Day of the Exposition. Invited 
to meet them was the representative of the President of 
the United States, Secretary Taft, the President of the 
Exposition Company and Mrs. Francis, the Directors 
of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company and 
their wives, the Governors of the States represented at 
the opening exercises and their wives, the Senators, 
and Members of the House, representing the two bodies 
of Congress, and other distinguished visitors and citizens. 
It was a most brilliant and interesting gathering, and 
not only rounded out the Opening Day with satisfac- 
tion to all, but inaugurated the series of entertainments 
that were to be afterwards given in the Building of the 
Board of Lady Managers. 

In the argument of President Francis before the Ap- 
propriation Committee, in January, 1903, when asking 
Congress to make the additional loan, he said : — 

We are the nation's hosts, as we understand it. We 
propose to entertain distinguished people from every 
section of the globe. . . . Bear in mind we are enter- 
taining the guests of the Government, — we think we 
are benefiting the commerce of the country; we think we 
are doing a patriotic service in commemorating a great 
event and bringing all classes into closer relations. 


cementing the ties that bind the difiFerent sections of 
the nation, affording our people opportunity to see 
something of the people and customs and the resources 
of our possessions, and on the other hand, affording 
opportunity to those people to become acquainted with 
this great country. 

At the meeting of the Board on March 2, 1904, after 
the Board of Lady Managers had obtained the appro- 
priation from Congress that placed it within its power to 
meet the requirements of its position. President Francis 
was asked what he thought would be the pleasure of 
the Executive Committee that the Board do with the 
funds so obtained, as no expression had been received 
from the Company as to what special duty it was anxious 
or would like to have the Board perform, to which Presi- 
dent Francis replied, that he "had not given the matter 
thought, but that the Board would want to do some 
entertaining; that the ladies were well adapted to that; 
they were experienced in that sort of thing and knew 
how to go about it. That he did not see much they could 
do with the money aside from entertaining." 

And thus the Board of Lady Managers, as one of the 
three coordinate bodies of the Exposition, authorita- 
tively took its place in the complex mechanism of the 
great World's Fair, and accepted the responsibility of 
doing its share of the entertainment on behalf of women. 

What form of government is there at the present time 
that is not dependent upon the household of the Execu- 
tive and the homes of the officials for the social success 
of an administration ? An Exposition on the enormous 
scale of that which existed in St. Louis partook in its 


management for the time being of the nature of a gov- 
ernment; an executive and oflfieial household was an 
essential and important factor, because the representa- 
tives of all nations were to be entertained. As in this 
World's Fair, the highest recognition was given to 
women, it was but reasonable that women should be 
appointed to take the place set apart for them, and to 
perform such duties as would be assigned to them, in 
any well-regulated government and upon the broadest 
scale, — their province being that of National Host- 
esses, — their privilege to extend a generous and far- 
reaching hospitality to all official dignitaries from home 
and abroad who visited the Exposition. 

Among the social events occurring at the Building of 
the Board of Lady Managers, the following is a list of 
the more prominent ones held during the Exposition 
period : — 

Dinner to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition 

Commission April 30 

Reception to Mrs. Francis, wife of the Presi- 
dent of the Exposition Company May 9 

Reception to officers of Army and Navy, pre- 
sent in and around St. Louis at that time May 18 

Luncheon to General Federation of Women's 

Clubs May 19 

Luncheon to Miss Roosevelt May 31 

Tea to Musical Federation June 2 

Dinner to Prince Pu Lun, the official repre- 
sentative to the Exposition of the Empress 
An of China June 10 

Reception to Foreign Representatives at the 

Louisiana Purchase Exposition June 17 


Reception to P. E. O.'s June 18 

Reception to Governors, and State and Ter- 
ritorial Commissioners at the Exposition June 24 

Dinner to Governor and Mrs. Odell, of New 

York June 28 

Visit of Cardinal Satolli July 1 

Reception to Mrs. Charles Mercer Hall July 12 

Reception to Civic Federation July 12 

Reception to Members of Interparliamentary 
Union, at which time the Building was 
draped with the flags of all nations, and 
the national airs of the different countries 
represented were played by the orchestra Sept. 12 

Reception to Mrs. Sarah S. Piatt Decker, 
President of the General Federation of 
Women's Clubs Sept. 19 

Reception to Members of the Congress of 

Arts and Sciences Sept. 20 

Illustrated lecture, — Italy and its Monu- 
ments, — by Professor Attilio Brunialti, 
Member of the Italian Parliament, Coun- 
cillor of State Sept. 22 

Reception to Members of the American Bar 
Association and Congress of Lawyers and 
Jurists Sept. 30 

Reception to the President, Mrs. Augustine 
Smythe, and officers and members of the 
United Daughters of the Confederacy Oct. 7 

Presentation of silk flag and staff to La Garde 
Republicaine, of Paris, by Mrs. Daniel 
Manning Oct. 8 

Reception to the President, Mrs. Charles W. 
Fairbanks, and oflBcers and members of the 


National Society Daughters of the Ameri- 
can Revolution Oct. 11 

Reception to the Governor of Connecticut and 

his Staff Oct. 13 

Tea to Hostesses of State and Territorial 

Buildings Oct. 14 

Reception to the President, Mrs. Herbert 
Claiborne, and members National Society 
Colonial Dames of America Oct. 20 

An informal dance Oct. 25 

Reception to meet the President and mem- 
bers of the Wednesday Club of St. Louis. Oct. 29 

Reception to meet the members of the Asso- 
ciation of Collegiate Alumnse Nov. 3 

Reception to meet the President and mem- 
bers of the Woman's Club of St. Louis 

Informal dance 

Dinner to President Francis 

Reception to Forest Park University students 

Informal dance 

Reception to Prince Fushimi, the official 
Representative to the Exposition of the 
Mikado of Japan Nov. 22 

Dinner to Jefferson Guards, Thanksgiving 

Day Nov. 24 

Final reception of the Board of Lady Man- 
agers on what was known as "Francis 
Day," in honor of the President of the 
Exposition, when the Board of Lady 
Managers kept informal "open house" 
and entertained all who called on this, the 
last day of the Exposition Dec. 1 












The members of the Board met their obligations with 
acceptable dignity, offering cordial hospitality to all the 
important bodies meeting within the Exposition Grounds. 
Their Building was the social centre around which 
gathered the national and international representatives 
of governments and organizations, until more than 
twenty-five thousand persons received specific invita- 
tion to their official entertainments. And whether the 
hospitality was extended to His Eminence the emis- 
sary of the Pope, or whether it was a reception to His 
Imperial Highness the representative of the Mikado 
of Japan, or a dinner to the envoy of Empress An of 
China, or to the Governor of a State and his Staff, or to 
the members of the National Commission, or the officials 
of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company, all 
were welcomed with genuine cordiality, the Board of 
Lady Managers never failing to remember their respon- 
sibility and that they were representing the nation and 
serving their country by thus doing their share in af- 
fording an opportunity for all nationalities to become 
acquainted with each other and with our social customs 
as demonstrated at the Exposition. 
Respectfully submitted. 
Mary Margaretta Manning, Chairman. 

Fannie Lowry Porter, 
Belle L. Everest, 
Josephine Sullivan, 
Salena V. Ernest, 
M. K. DE Young, 
Katharine Pratt Horton, 
Helen Boice-Hunsicker, 
Amelia von Mayhoff, 






On December 2 the last session of the Board was 
held in the building which it had occupied during all 
the months of the Exposition, and it was with a feeling 
of genuine regret that the members separated never to 
meet again in their house which had been the scene of 
many interesting gatherings. 

On the day following the official closing of the Expo- 
sition, the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company 
sent its representative to make an inventory of the fur- 
nishings of the building, preparatory to the dismantUng 
of the house, which was thereafter to be known as the 
Physics Building and to be occupied by students of 
Washington University. On December 13, formal and 
final surrender of the building and its contents was 
made by the President, on behalf of the Board of Lady 
Managers, to the Exposition Company. 


Immediately upon the adjournment of the Board, the 
President began to collect material for the report, and 
pursuant to the power given her by the resolution at the 
last session, held in St. Louis, a special meeting was 
called on June 9, 1905, at the Murray Hill Hotel, New 
York, to pass upon the final report of the Board. 

There were present, Mrs. Daniel Manning, President, 
presiding, Mrs. Buchwalter, Mrs. Hanger, Acting Sec- 
retary, Mrs. Knott, Mrs. Daly, Mrs. Holcombe, Mrs. 
Ernest, Mrs. Moores, Mrs. Coleman, Mrs. Hunsicker, 
Miss Dawes, Miss Egan. 

The report was to be transmitted to the Louisiana 
Purchase Exposition Commission, whose final meeting 
was called at Portland, Oregon, for June 15. It was, 
therefore, necessary that the report of the Board should 
be in the hands of the Commission by that time. 

Final reports were made by special committees and 
the Treasurer. A resolution adopted on November 14, 
1904, provided for the editing of the Minutes of the 
Board, by the following Committee: Mrs. Frederick 
Hanger, Chairman, Mrs. Finis P. Ernest, and Miss 
Anna L. Dawes. At the meeting of the Board on 
June 10, the Chairman of the Committee reported that 
the stenographic reports of the proceedings of the ten 
meetings of the Board, covering about seven hundred 
typewritten pages, had been carefully edited; that all 
motions and resolutions had been retained inviolate, 
that these with roll-call, time and place of meeting, 


and in some instances limited discussion, made up the 
subject-matter of the Minutes, the same covering some 
two hundred and forty typewritten pages. The report 
of the Editing Committee was adopted, the Minutes 
accepted, and ordered placed on file with the archives 
of the Board. 

A Committee on Resolutions, consisting of Mrs. 
Edward L. Buchwalter and Mrs. Richard W. Knott, 
presented, as one of the finalities of the eleventh meeting 
of the Board, the following resolutions, which were 
unanimously adopted : — 

Whereas, — The Louisiana Purchase Exposition 
Commission, by authority vested in it by an Act of Con- 
gress, appointed the members of the Board of Lady 

Therefore, be it resolved, — That the Board of 
Lady Managers of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition 
expresses its appreciation of the high honor conferred 
on its members by their appointment, and 

Be it further resolved, — That the thanks of the 
Board of Lady Managers be extended to the Louisiana 
Purchase Exposition Commission for the privileges 
and pleasures it enjoyed as a Board. 

Resolved, — The members of the Board of Lady 
Managers of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition wish 
to express their appreciation of the courtesy and kind- 
ness shown them by the Exposition Company during 
the Exposition period. 

Resolved, — The Board of Lady Managers express 
their appreciation to the Louisiana Purchase Exposl- 


tion Company for the commemorative diplomas and 
medals conferred upon them by the Exposition Com- 

Resolved, — The Board of Lady Managers of the 
Louisiana Purchase Exposition wishes to express its 
appreciation of its oflBcers for their services, not only in 
their official work, but in all the duties that devolved 
upon them as members of the Board. 


From December 5, 1901, to February 18, 1904. 

By Act of Congress, March 3, 1901, the Louisiana Purchase Exposition 
Company received $5,000,000 from the Government and was pledged to 
pay the current expenses of the Board of Lady Managers. Therefore, the 
following items paid by the Company (which were contracted prior to 
the application by the Board for an appropriation) in no wise constituted 
a lien upon the $100,000 received by the Board by Act of Congress, Feb- 
ruary 18, 1904. 

Mileage and per diem of members : Informal meet- 
ing N. Y., December 6, 1901; 1st meeting, St. 
Louis, September 30, 1902; 5th meeting, St. 
Louis, December 15, 1903; called by National 
Commission, $5,623.40 

Mileage and per diem: meetings N. Y. Novem- 
ber 17, 1902; February 16, 1903; St. Louis, 
April 29, 1903; and members on Committee work, 4,886.95 
Expenses of Reception to Congress of 
the Daughters of the American Revo- 
lution, at Washington, D. C, Feb- 
ruary 26, 1903, $666.66 
Mileage and per diem of Committee on 
Reception to Congress of the Daugh- 
ters of the American Revolution, 315.85 982.51 
Stationery, printing, and rental of typewriter, 67.77 
Postage, telephones, telegrams, office supplies, 60.42 
Clerical, and employees' salaries, 2,076.47 
Street cars chartered by Exposition Company, 390.00 $14,087.52 





Until after February 18, 1904 

Amount forward. 


Mileage and per diem, meeting March 1. to 

March 5, 1904, 


Stenographic work, 


Secretary's salary, 


Furniture and decoration, $1,484.97 

Work done in Physics Building, by 

Bright (included in House Furnish- 

ing Report), 728.34 


Work done in Physics Building, by Williams, 


Office supplies, telegrams, postage. 


Street cars chartered by Exposition Company, 


Official Photographic Company (unauthorized by 

President Board of Lady Managers), 

80.00 5,381.99 


Mrs. William H. Coleman was elected Treasurer of 
the Board of Lady Managers, at its first formal meet- 
ing, held on October 1, 1902. 

The first appropriation received was from the 
Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company, and was 
for the sum of $3000 for incidental expenses. On Feb- 
ruary 18, 1904, the appropriation of $100,000 for the 
use of the Board was made by Congress, at which time 
the real responsibilities of the Treasurer began. 

The duties of the Treasurer were fully defined in 
Rule 6 of the Rules and Regulations adopted by the 
Board on April 28, 1903, and the custody of all funds 
was placed in her hands, to be disbursed "only upon 
order of the Board and the approval of its President." 

At the meeting called for June 9, 1905, the last report 
of the Treasurer was read, the following being the final 
summary of all funds received and disbursed by the 
Board of Lady Managers : — 


From March 17, 1903, to June 10, 1905. 

Received from Louisiana Purchase Exposition 

Company, by appropriation of February 16, 

1903 $3,000.00 

Received from appropriation of Congress by 

Act of February 18, 1904 100,000.00 

Received interest on $100,000 acct. 1,502.29 


Tinting walls, staining floors, heating appar- 
atus, wiring for bells, awnings, screens and 

From $100,000 $2,263.32 

From 3,000 64.30 $2,327.62 

Furniture, china, linen, freight and packing 

From $100,000 $11,692.65 

From 3,000 652.25 12,344.90 

Mileage and per diem. Board Meetings, and 

Rotating Committees, paid from all sources 30,272.76 
Entertainment 10,672.85 

Stationery, engraving, and printing 5,906.15 

Postage and telegrams 1,196.94 

Telephones 281.24 

Clerical and household force expenses 5,096,17 

Office incidentals 274.14 

House incidentals 1,007.84 

Other incidentals 2,255.77 

Model Play-Ground 5,100.00 

Miscellaneous expenses, resolution June 10, 

1905, in payment 2.000.00 

Total disbursements $78,736.38 

Less returned from 

Incidental account 900.75 

Grand total of all disbursements to June 10, 1905 $77,835.63 

Balance in hands of Treasurer June 10, 1905 26,666.66 $104,502.29 

Sallie D. Coleman, Treasurer Board of Lady Managers, 

Louisiana Purchase Exposition. 



Amount brought forward from the Treas- 
urer's Report as Balance in hands of 
Treasurer June 10, 1905, which is the 
amount returned to the Exposition 
Company by the Board of Lady Mana- 
gers, from all funds, $26,666.66 

To the above amount returned to Ex- 
position Company, is to be added as 
a credit the sum paid to the Company 
in cash on December 14, 1904, for 
furniture and articles purchased by the 
members of the Board, amounting to 2,150.00 

Making the total amount returned to the 

Exposition Company from all sources $28,816.66 


The Auditing Committee, composed of Mrs. William 
E. Andrews, Chairman, Mrs. Mary Phelps Montgomery, 
and Mrs. Finis P. Ernest, was elected by the Board 
of Lady Managers March 4, 1904, for the purpose of 
examining and auditing the accounts of the Treasurer, 
Mrs. William H. Coleman. 

The Committee met at stated intervals, and examined 
the vouchers and checks numbered 1 to 253 inclusive, 
and reported that these were found to be correct and 
accounted fully for all moneys received by the Treas- 
urer to that date, and this report was accepted. 

The Exposition closed on December 1, and the Audit- 
ing Committee was not again called until the time for 
rendering a final account of the funds of the Board. At 


this time the absence of the Chairman, Mrs. Andrews, 
and Mrs. Montgomery, necessitated the appointment 
of two other members to fill said vacancies, in order to 
audit the bills contracted by the Board from Novem- 
ber 1, 1904, to June 10, 1905. Mrs. Hanger and Mrs. 
Knott were thereupon elected. Mrs. Montgomery ar- 
riving later, Mrs. Hanger withdrew from the Com- 
mittee, leaving the membership: Mrs. Ernest, Chair- 
man, Mrs. Montgomery, and Mrs. Knott, — all present. 
On June 12 and subsequently, this Committee met 
and examined the vouchers and checks from Novem- 
ber 1, 1904, to June 10, 1905, inclusive, and found the 
accounts between the above mentioned dates to be 

Total Receipts 

From Louisiana Purchase Exposition Company $3,000.00 

From Appropriation by Congress 100,000.00 

Total interest received on above $100,000 acct. 1,502.29 

Total amount received from all sources $104,502.29 

Total expended from $3,000 $3,000.00 

Total expended from $100,000 74,146.83 

Total amount interest expended as 

per resolution of June 10 688.80 

Total expenditures $77,835.63 

Balance on hand from interest $813.49 

Balance on hand from $100,000 

appropriation 25,853.17 

Balance on hand from all sources $26,666.66 $104,502.29 

A certified public accountant has been engaged to 
prepare a classified summary of all receipts and dis- 
bursements, and we refer to the figures of his report 



for details and totals, which we hereby approve and 
accept as final. 

In witness whereof we have hereunto set our hands 
this 17th day of June, 1905. 

SalENA V. Ernest, \ Members 

Mary Phelps Montgomery, >• Auditing 
Jennie Gillmore Knott, ) Committee. 


New York, June 16, 1905. 
To the President, and Auditing Committee of the Board 
of Lady Managers of the Louisiana Purchase Ex- 

In accordance with your instructions I have made 
an examination of your Treasurer's accounts from 
March 17, 1903, to June 10, 1905, and herewith submit 
to you my report thereon. 

All vouchers covering the disbursements from the 
appropriation made by Congress of One Hundred 
Thousand Dollars ($100,000) are in due form and 
properly approved and attested, vouchers being on 
file for all amounts paid, each voucher containing a 
"Paid" check signed by the Treasurer and counter- 
signed by the President, excepting a few which in the 
ordinary course of business have not as yet been pre- 
sented at bank for payment. 

All disbursements from the Three Thousand Dollars 
($3,000) received from the Louisiana Purchase Expo- 
sition Company, and from the interest received from 
banks, have been made by Treasurer's check, and all 
have been approved by the President of the Board. The 
total disbursements and receipts to June 10, are as 
follows : — 


Tdal Amount Received by the Treasurer to June 10, 1905 

From Louisiana Purchase Exposition 

Company $3,000.00 

From Congress 100,000.00 

Interest received from banks, 1,502.29 

Total received from all sources to June 

10, 1905, $104,502.29 

Total Amount Disbursed by Treasurer to June 10, 1905 

From the $3,000 received from the Loui- 
siana Purchase Exposition Company $3,000.00 
From the appropriation from Congress, 74,146.83 
From the interest received from banks, 688.80 

Total disbursed from all sources to 

June 10, 1905 $77,835.63 

Balance in Hands of Treasurer on June 10, 1905 

From the $3,000 received from Louisiana 

Purchase Exposition Company 

From the $100,000 appropriation from 

Congress, $25,583.17 

From interest received from banks, 813.49 

Balance in hands of Treasurer June 10, 

1905 $26,666.66 

Respectfully submitted. 

John Proud, 
Certified Public Accountant. 


It has been said that "an exposition should be as 
broad and comprehensive as the efforts of mankind." 
In all human activities in recent years, advancement 
has been so marvelously rapid that important exposi- 
tions might be held from time to time in which would 
be included nothing but inventions, discoveries, and 
accomplishments that belong to the intervening epoch- 
making periods. 

That all nations take a deep interest in World's Fairs 
is made manifest by the large attendance of people 
from all parts of the globe. It is self-evident that they 
appreciate the fact that most beneficial results may be 
derived by all, not only by means of the practical and 
tangible demonstration and comparison of objects as- 
sembled, but through the opportunity afforded for inter- 
change of thought so conspicuously made available to 
advanced thinkers and workers. And it is hoped and 
believed that in its own time and in its own way each 
exposition will accomplish much for the good of both 
men and women of every country. 

It would seem from the division of work as shown at 
the Exposition by the Filipinos and the Indian tribes 
that women have not only, from the remotest times of 
which we have record, originated and practiced most 
of the industrial arts; but, among primitive nations, 
they still continue to ply the same occupations. The 
exhibits showed that the work of the men was still that 
of the hunter and trapper, — while the Filipino woman, 
who sat on the floor making cotton cloth, would indicate 


that it had fallen to the share of women not only to 
fashion garments, but to manufacture the material from 
which they were made. And was not the stick which 
she so deftly handled, upon which she wound her thread 
to carry the woof to and fro transversely across the 
warp of her hand-woven fabric, the forerunner of the 
swiftly moving shuttle of to-day ? And if the primitive 
woman made garments from the skins which the hunter 
brought home, and cooked the game which he shot 
or trapped, and originated the method of cooking other 
articles of food, — has she not earned for herself the 
right to be termed the first " home-maker " ? It is true 
the home originally had to be maintained by force of 
arms, but when this necessity no longer existed, man, 
"the protector," had time to examine this woman- 
made home; he then put his ingenuity to work to aid 
in the increased demands large households made upon 
women, and invented and applied machinery to do the 
heavy tasks that had theretofore been done by them. 
He found it a vastly remunerative occupation, and 
promptly removed her work of spinning, weaving, dye- 
ing, and even the making of every kind of garment, and 
the preparation of foods, to his factories. 

Women did not at first willingly accept the innova- 
tion, — their occupations were gone, — but, with their 
usual adaptability, they quickly invented new ones. 
They now had time and opportunity to acquire educa- 
tion, enter the professions, and prepare themselves to 
take their equal place by the side of men. 

President Francis, in his address on Opening Day, 
said of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition: "So 
thoroughly does it represent the world's civilization 

L'ENVOI 341 

that if all man's other works were, by some unspeak- 
able catastrophe, blotted out, the records here estab- 
lished by the assembled nations would afford all neces- 
sary standards for the rebuilding of our entire civili- 
zation;" and at this great exposition, hy the elimination 
of the special Woman's Department, the exhibits of wo- 
man's work for the first time in this country stood solely 
and independently by the side of the exhibits by men; 
the industrial equality and the value of the contribu- 
tions to the industries, sciences, and arts of both were 
judged by the same standards. Let no concern, there- 
fore, be felt as to the future advancement of women. 
Their strength and powers have been tested; the new 
era upon which they entered but a few years ago, under 
the leadership of the women of America, is now far 
advanced for the women of all nations in every country; 
their undeniable right to education and training is 
being acknowledged; their consequent recognition as 
a factor for increased usefulness is being accorded, and 
their development is swift, — their progress sure. 

The Louisiana Purchase Exposition is passing into 
the realm wherein lies f orgetf ulness ; its beauties are 
even now fading from the memories of its millions of 
visitors. The buildings have been razed, and the broad 
acres it covered have been laid waste; the labor of 
years, the result of thought, perseverance, patience, 
energy, and untiring application on the part of hun- 
dreds of its promoters and workers, already seems as 
intangible as a dream. But the things for which these 
buildings stood, the intellectual, moral, and material 
prosperity which they expressed, are real, lasting, and 
glorious. These are permanently recorded in history. 


And forming an important part of these records is the 
work of woman. 

The Board of Lady Managers of this vast World's 
Fair earnestly hopes that at every future exposition 
woman may be accorded the dignified position which 
she has so splendidly earned by her own endeavors, and 
that each time a resume of her work achieved is re- 
corded, new fields of usefulness may be found added 
thereto. No fear need be entertained that she will not 
always demonstrate that she does contribute her full 
share toward the progress and prosperity of nations 
and the uplifting of humanity. 



Accountant, report of, 337, 338. 

Act creating the Board of Lady Man- 
agers, 14. 

Addams, Miss Jane, report of, on 
Housing of the Working Classes, 
256, 257. 

Advancement of women, 23, 24, 32, 

Agriculture, report on, 276, 277. 

Allen, Hon. John M., 15. 

Allowance for expenses, 30, 31, 39, 
41, 77. 

American Institute of Social Service, 
work of, 247; publications of, 248; 
results, 248, 249. 

Ancient Sons and Daughters of Jeru- 
salem, 108. 

Andrews, Mrs. William E., 15, 18,43, 
44, 74, 133, 374. 

Anthropology, woman's work in, 239. 

Appointment of representatives, 39, 

Appropriations, 54, 75, 78, 86, 86. 

Archaeology, woman's work in, 237. 

Architecture, school of, 162. 

Argentina, school buildings of, 162. 

Art workmanship, report on, 199. 

Association of Collegiate Alumnae, 133. 

Awards, Jury of, 31; rules for, 143- 

Bernays, Miss Thekla M., report of, 

on manufactures, 267-271. 
Betts, Hon. Frederick A., 15. 
Bland, Mrs. Richard P., report of, on 

agriculture, 276, 277. 
Blind, and other defectives, their work, 

Board of Lady Managers, duties of, 

44--47; expenses, 64, 65; members, 

15; meetings, 25, 33, 35, 38, 42,47, 
55, 72, 74; meeting, final, 330. 

Blair, Mrs. James L., 15, 40, 42, 43, 
55, 56, 82. 

Bois, Mr. Stanley, commissioner from 
Ceylon, 311. 

Boston Cooperative Society, medal 
awarded to, for model housekeep- 
ing, 257. 

Bowes, Mrs. F. K., report of, on sew- 
ing-machines, etc., 207, 208. 

Boyd, Mrs. Isaac, report of, on ceram- 
ics, 205. 

Bread and pastry, report on, 230-232. 

Buchwalter, Mrs. Edward L., 15, 17, 
43, 53, 55, 61, 62, 82, 87, 100, 115, 
117, 133, 330, 331. 

Building, permanent, 42. 

Buisson, B., representative of the 
French Government, 156. 

Capital and labor, 244, 245. 

Carter, Hon. Thomas H., 15, 41, 60, 

98; addresses by, 25-32, 36-38, 44- 

47, 62-66. 
Ceramics, report on, 205. 
Charities and Correction, report on, 

Children, lost, 318, 320. 
Circular to women of Europe, 118. 
Cleveland, ex-President Grover, 52. 
Clothing industries, report on, 219. 
■Coleman, Mrs. William H., 15, 17, 44, 

72, 82, 87, 330, 332, 337. 
Colleges, women's, 166, 167. 
Colonial Dames, 110, 133, 328. 
Collegiate Alumnae, Association of, 

133, 328. 
Committee, auditing, 335-337; awards, 

289-297; conference, 43 ; entertain- 



ment, 322-328; foreign relations, 
118-123; house furnishing, 123- 
129; house (committee), 307-322; 
legislative, 73, 82-86; special, 21; 
standing, 19, 20; woman's work, 43, 
87-117; women's congresses, 129- 

Congress, International, 103, 104. 

Conway, Dr. J. J., juror, 175. 

Corbin, Major-General Henry C, 52. 

Council of Jewish women, 108, 133. 

Creche, the, 78, 114, 115, 312, 314, 315, 

Curie, Madame, discoverer of radium, 

Daly, Mrs. Marcus P., 15, 18, 19, 98, 
117, 330. 

Daughters of the American Revolu- 
tion, 43, 108, 133. 

Daughters of Liberty, 108. 

Daughters of St. George, 108. 

Daughters of Veterans, 108. 

Dawes, Miss Anna L., 15, 17, 43, 55, 
56, 59, 62, 98, 123. 

Day, Mrs. M. B. R., report of, on 
Pomology, 236. 

Day Nursery, 116, 312, 318, 323. 

Dedication, exercises of, 51-53. 

Defectives, work of, 183. 

De Los Rios, Mr. Morales, 156. 

Design, Woman's School of, 154. 

De Young, Mrs. M. H., 15, 17, 19-33, 
98, 117, 329, 

Edgerton, Mrs. R. A., report of, on 

Decoration of Buildings, 204, 205. 
Education, report on, 264, 265. 
Egan, Miss Lavinia H., 16, 18, 19, 43, 

72, 134, 141, 290, 306, 330. 
Ernest, Mrs. Finis P., 15, 17, 19, 43, 

312, 329, 330, 334, 335. 
Ethnography, exhibits in, 243. 
Ethnology, woman's work in, 238, 

Everest, Mrs. Belle L., 15, 17, 19, 21, 

Exhibit, Educational, 150-155; Gov- 

ernment, 75 ; Indian school, 239; 

Philippine Islands, 253. 
Exposition Company, 34, 36, 38, 41, 

59, 65, 66, 76, 79, 81, 128, 290, 295, 

296, 307, 315, 329, 331, 333. 
Exposition, educational advantages of, 

Expositions, previous, work of women 

in, 23. 

Farm equipment, report on, 226-229. 

Farming by irrigation, 228, 

Felton, Mrs. W. H., report of, on 

« Farm Equipment," 226-229. 
Field, Mrs. Eugene, Group Juror, 199, 
Fischel, Mrs. W. E., report of, on 

Education, 264, 265, 
Fischer, Miss Elizabeth, 155. 
Fletcher, Miss Alice C, report of, on 

Somatology, 237-239. 
Francis, Hon. David R., 29, 34, 52, 84; 

addresses by, 30-32, 56-58, 74-78, 

138-140 ; dinner in honor of, 310, 

324, 328. 
Frost, Mrs. Lewis D., 15, 18. 
Fruit-farmers, women, 236. 
Fund, contingent, 63. 
Fushimi, Prince, reception in honor of, 

309, 328. 

Garesch^, Miss M. R., award for paint- 
ing, 153. 

General Federation of Women's Clubs, 
35, 133, 326, 

Geographical apparatus, 201-205. 

Gibbons, Cardinal James, 52, 

Glenn, Mrs. J. M., 278. 

Glynn, Hon. Martin H., 15. 

Gould, Miss Helen M., 15, 17, 19, 21, 
33, 34, 40, 43, 56, 61, 98, 100, 118, 

Greisheimer, Miss Caroline, report of, 
on Social Economy, 244-255. 

Griswold, Miss Edith J., report of, on 
Machinery, 271-273, 

Hamlin, Mrs. Cond^, report of, on 
Municipal Government, 262, 263. 



Hanger, Mrs. Frederick, 15, 17, 19, 

21, 44, 56, 72, 97, 131, 133, 141, 290, 

295, 297, 306, 314, 323. 
Harrow, Mrs. A. G., report of, on 

Clothing Industries, 219. 
Headquarters, Permanent, 35. 
Hedleston, Miss Florence, wildflower 

painting exhibit by, 153. 
Henderson, Mrs. Alice Palmer, re- 
port of, on Ethnology, 242-249. 
Hill, Octavia, work of, in London, 256. 
Historical data, 1-13. 
Holcombe, Mrs. John M., 15, 17, 43, 

56, 61, 117, 123, 129, 323, 330. 
Holland, Mrs. M. E., detective, 260. 
Horton, Mrs. John Miller, 15, 18, 19, 

21, 43, 329. 
House-furnishing, expenditure, 124, 

129; gifts and loans for, 125-127. 
Housing, Model, 256, 257. 
How, Mrs. Eliza Eads, 42, 147. 
Humane Education Society, methods 

and results, 254. 
Hunsicker, Mrs. Helen Boice-, 15, 17, 


Igorrotes, 253. 

Indian Relics, 242. 

" International Day," 53. 

Inventions of women, 272, 273. 

Japan, charts and diagrams, 160. 
Jewish Women, Council of, 108, 133. 
Johnston, Miss Frances B., report of, 

on Photography, 200. 
Jurors, list of, 297-302 ; department 

jurors, 303-305. 
Jurors, women, 24. 
Jury of Awards, 31; rules for, 143- 

Jusserand, Ambassador, 53. 

Kindergarten work, 176. 

King's Daughters, 108. 

Knights and Ladies of Honor, 108. 

Knott, Mrs. Richard W., 15, 17, 40, 

43, 56, 99, 100, 118, 290, 306, 335. 
Krupp, Fraiilein, model housing, 256. 

Laces, report on, 220, 221. 

Ladies' Aid Society of the United 
States, 108. 

Ladies' Catholic Benevolent Associa- 
tion, 110. 

Ladies of the Maccabees, 108. 

Ladies United Veteran Legion, 108. 

L'Envoi, 339-342. 

Letter of Transmittal, 1. 

Lincoln, Mrs. Alice N., model hous- 
ing, 257. 

Lindsay, Hon. William, 15, 66, 69. 

Longman, Mrs. Evylyn B., designer of 
the " Victory," 178. 

Loomis, Hon. Francis B., 122. 

Lost children, 318, 320. 

Loughborough, Miss Hope Fairfax, 
report of, on Education of Defect- 
ives, 181-184; report on Electricity. 

Lyte, Dr. E. O., 156. 

McBride, Hon. George W., 15. 
McBlair, Miss Julia T. £., hostess, 18, 

McCall, Mrs. John A., 15; resigna- 
tion of, 32. 
MacDougal, Miss Anna G., report of, 

on Secondary Education, 163-165. 
Machinery, report on, 271-273. 
Major, Mrs. William S., report of, on 

Wearing Apparel, etc., 222, 223. 
Manning, Mrs. Daniel, 1, 15, 17, 19, 

21, 34, 43, 54, 61, 62, 74, 75, 80, 82, 

84, 118, 121, 129, 132, 141, 289, 293, 

295, 329. 
Manual training, increasing in favor, 

Manufactures, report on, 267-271. 
Massachusetts, school exhibit, 152. 
Matthews, Mrs. Elizabeth St. John, 

report of, on Sculpture, 193-196. 
Miles, Lieutenant-General Nelson A., 

Miller, Hon. John F., 15. 
Mines, report on, 278-281. 
Mining, woman's work in, 280, 281. 
Minnesota, educational exhibit, 152; 

manual training in, 165. 



Missionary Society, Woman's Foreign, 

Model Play-Ground, 116. 
Montgomery, Mrs. James B., 15, 18- 

21, 43, 44, 63, 66, 76, 82, 87, 97, 100, 

109, 117, 118, 123, 129. 
Moore, Mrs. Philip U., general report 

of, 286-288. 
Moores, Mrs. Annie McLean, 16, 18, 

19, 43, 118, 330. 
Mothers, National Congress of, 108, 

Museum, Philadelphia Commercial, 

249, 250. 

National American Woman Suffrage 

Association, 108. 
National Commission, 1, 14, 15, 25, 

26, 30, 34, 38, 40, 44, 52, 54, 59, 

60, 66, 68, 70, 72, 114, 324, 326, 

National Congress of Mothers, 108, 

National Council of Women, 108. 
National League of Women Workers, 

New York City, sociologic exhibit, 

153; night school of art, 181. 
Nurses, International Congress of, 

Nuttall, Mrs. Zelia, investigations in 

archaeology, 237. 

Officers, election of, 33; and mem- 
bers of the Board, 17. 

Ojeda, SeSor Don Emilio, 53. 

Opening Day, festivities of, 135. 

Opportunity of the Exposition, 23, 32, 

Organization of the Board, 25. 

Paintings and drawings, 185-188. 

P. E. C. Sisterhood, 108. 

Perry, Miss Mary E., report of, 

on Charities and Correction, 257- 

Peters, Miss Cora, report of, on Indian 

Education, 242. 

Philadelphia Commercial Museum, 
249, 250. 

Photograph, importance of, in an edu- 
cational exhibit, 160. 

Photography, report on, 200. 

Pioneers, sacrifices of, 32. 

Pomology, report on, 236. 

Porter, Mrs. Fannie R., 15, 17, 19, 33, 
44, 141. 

Potter, Bishop Henry C, 52. 

Proctor, Hon. John R., statistics of 
woman's work in Government de- 
partments, 88, 89. 

Pugh, Mrs. F. H., report of, on Bread 
and Pastry, 230-232. 

Pu Lun, Prince, dinner in honor of, 
309, 326. 

Receptions, 33, 43, 52, 72. 

Relief Corps, Woman's, 108, 133. 

Resolutions, 34, 38, 53, 64, 55, 58, 59, 
74, 79, 140, 313, 314, 331. 

Rhode Island, school exhibit, 162. 

Richards, Mrs. Ellen C, expert in san- 
itary chemistry, 176. 

Riley, Mrs. C. M. F., report of, on 
" Sugar and Confectionery," 233- 

Roebling, Mrs. Washington A., 15, 47. 

Rogers, Dr. Howard J., in charge of 
the congresses, 109, 111. 

Roosevelt, Miss Alice, luncheon in 
honor of, 309, 326. 

Roosevelt, President Theodore, 52 ; 
orders statistical information for 
Woman's Work Committee, 89. 

Roosevelt, Mrs. Theodore, picture of, 
presented, 125. 

Rules and regulations, 26-28, 47-51. 

St. Louis, 60, 67 ; school exhibit, 153. 
Salvation Army, its beginning, 251 ; 

its progress, 252. 
School, French industrial, 154. 
Schoolhouse, portable, 162. 
School of architecture, 162. 
Schools, movement to centralize, 162 ; 

county, 163. 



Scientific research, woman's work in, 
172, 178, 179. 

Scrutchin, Mrs. M. 6., report of, on 
Mines, 278-281. 

Sculpture, report on, 193-196. 

Secretary, election of first, 33 ; re- 
signation of first, 72 ; election of 
second, 72 ; appointment of third, 

Sewing, report on, 207-208. 

Orwell, Miss S. E., award, 153. 

Skiff, Hon. F. J. V., 69, 101 ; address 
by, 103-105. 

Sloyd, in Sweden's exhibit, 162. 

Smith, Miss Anna Tolman, report of, 
on educational exhibit, 150-155. 

Smith, Mrs. Horace S., 200. 

Social Economy, exhibits in, 243 ; re- 
port on, 244-255. 

Social events, list of, 325-327. 

Solari, Miss Mary, report of, on Paint- 
ings and Drawings, 185-188. 

Somatology, report on, 237-239. 

Spanish- American War nurses, 108. 

Spencer, Corwin H., 42, 100. 

Spinner, Treasurer, appointed first 
woman to position in GrOTemment 
service, 97. 

Stand for public decency in the con- 
cessions for shows, 34. 

« State Day," 53. 

Stevens, Walter B., 41, 80. 

Sugar and confectionery, report on, 

Sullivan, Miss Annie E., new method 
of instructing defectives, 175. 

Sullivan, Mrs. James Edmund, 16, 
17, 21, 34, 329. 

Sullivan, Lottie, deaf and blind girl, 
award to, for aptitude and progress, 

Summers, Miss Margaret, report of, on 
"Wearing Apparel," etc., 223-225. 

Surgery, woman's work in, 179. 

Tawney, Hon. James H., 83. 
Teachers, proportion of women, 151. 
Temple, Miss Grace Lincoln, designer 

of interior decorations of the Gov- 
ernment Building, 178. 

Temple, Miss Mary Boyce, report of, 
on Higher Education, 165-180. 

Thompson, W. H., 80. 

Thurston, Hon. John M., 15; address, 

Transportation, report on, 275, 276. 

Treasurer, report, 334; supplementary 
report, 335. 

Union, International Ladies' Garment 

Workers', 108. 
United Daughters of the Confederacy, 

108, 133, 327. 
United States Daughters of 1812, 110. 

Von Mayhoff, Mrs. Carl, 16, 18, 19, 
34, 118, 329. 

Wade, Miss Margaret, 256. 

Wages, 57; of women, 89-96. 

Wall-paper, designs of, by women, 

War, Spanish-American, nurses, 108. 

Washington, 83. 

Washington University, 78. 

Wearing apparel, report on, 223-225. 

Wednesday Club, 54. 

Weil's Band, courtesy of, 310. 

Weld, Miss Rose, report of, on Archi- 
tecture, 196-198; on Transporta- 
tion, 275, 276. 

Widegren, Miss Matilda, Swedish 
school exhibit, 154. 

Wildflower painting exhibit, 153. 

Wille, Frau, designer of carpets, 270. 

Woman, in scientific research, 172, 178, 
179; progress in art displayed at St. 
Louis, 177, 178; in surgery, 179. 

Woman's Building, 78. 

Woman's Christian Temperance Union, 
108, 133. 

Woman's Club, reception by, 72. 

Woman's Foreign Missionary Society, 

Woman's Relief Corps, 108, 133. 

Woman's School of Design, 154. 



Women's clubs, civic work of, 263; 

General Federation of, 35, 133, 326. 
Women's colleges, lists of, 166, 167; 

exhibits by, 169, 170. 
Women fruit-farmers, 236. 
Women, inventions of, 272, 273. 
Women jurors, 24. 
Women teachers, proportion of, 151. 
Wood, Miss Carrie, designer of the 

"Missouri," 178. 

Wood, Mrs. E. D., report of, on Laces, 

etc., 220, 221. 
Woolwine, Mrs. W. M., report of, 

on apparatus for geography, 201- 


Yandell, Miss Enid, designer of the 

" Daniel Boone," 178. 
Young Women's Christian Associa^ 

tion, 108. 



U. S. A. 

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